We refer to this as the issue of 'manifestation'. A learning design that is represented in a relatively complete and explicit manner is said to be highly manifest; conversely, a fragmented or impenetrable design is said to be opaque. p.56.
Yet - and here we move on to the issue of representational forms - in order to be apprehended, a design must show not only the components of a learning experience (e.g. resources, activities and instructions) but also the relationships between them: sequential, conditional, thematic etc. Conversely, it must also represent the absence of relationships between the elements so that learners do not make incorrect inferences about them. p.57.
However, further analysis suggests that VLEs might indeed have an impact on pedagogy, but that it might be an unconscious one emerging from the phenomenon of 'design blindness', or the unconscious restriction of e-learning to the scope of one's tool. p.60.VLEs [virtual learning environments] start as pedagogically neutral ... p.62.
Masterman, L. & Vogel, M. (2007). Practices and processes of design for learning. In Beetham. H. & Sharpe, R. (Eds.), Rethinking Pedagogy for the Digital Age (pp. 52-63). London: Routledge.