- provides a space devoted to the conceptual framework known as Hodges' model. Read about this resource for HEALTH, SOCIAL CARE, INFORMATICS and EDUCATION. The model can facilitate PERSON-CENTREDNESS, CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, HOLISTIC CARE and REFLECTION. Follow the development of a new website using Drupal as I finalise my research question with part 2 starting in 2016. See our bibliography, posts since 2006 and please get in touch [@h2cm]. Welcome.

Thursday, March 12, 2009

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Nursing and Clinical Informatics: Socio-Technical Approaches

Edited By: Bettina Staudinger, University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, Austria; Victoria Höß, University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, Austria; Herwig Ostermann, University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, Austria


Description:
The field of nursing informatics is one of the fastest growing areas of medical informatics. As the industry grows, so does the need for obtaining the most recent, up-to-date research in this significant field of study.

Nursing and Clinical Informatics: Socio-Technical Approaches gives a general overview of the current state of nursing informatics paying particular attention to its social, socio-technical, and political aspects to further research and development projects. A unique international comparative work, this book covers the core areas of nursing informatics with a technical and functional respect and portrays them in their proper context.

Table of Contents:
Chapter I: A Treatise on Rural Public Health Nursing
    Wanda Sneed, Tarleton State University, USA

    The objective of this chapter is to promote public health nursing and community health nursing’s role in the new care delivery patterns, with predictive and preventative care models for populations. This entry will broaden the range of information available for informaticists, as their role expands in the new healthcare arena. Articulation with nursing informatics and the “quality chasm” crossings in U. S. healthcare will assist the informaticists with search and retrieval activities. All players in the healthcare arena will continue to be involved, but probably with a more rational policy-making role.

Chapter II: Assessment in a Computer-Based Nursing Documentation

    Elfriede Fitz, University for Health Sciences, Austria
    Daniela Deufert, University for Health Sciences, Austria
    Johannes, Hilbe, University for Health Sciences, Austria
    Christa Them, University for Health Sciences, Austria

    Experience in nursing practice shows that there are still problems with assessment in computer-based nursing documentation. In addition to nursing documentation, an assessment instrument that captures the needs for care must also be integrated. This chapter describes different Nursing Assessment Instruments and the advantages of Computer-Based Nursing Process Documentation by using quality criteria for assessment instruments such as validity, sensitivity, specificity, reliability, practicability, and the appropriateness of the instrument. Quality criteria for computer-based systems are basically software ergonomic aspects and therefore not part of this study. Each country should choose for itself those specific assessment instruments that capture the needs for care of their clients. The data presented make it possible that facilities are compared (also in regard of reliable cost estimates).

Chapter III: Clinical Decision Support Systems in Nursing

    Dawn Dowding, University of York, UK
    Rebecca Randell, City University, UK
    Natasha Mitchell, University of York, UK
    Rebecca Foster, School of Health Sciences at the University of Southampton, UK
    Valerie Lattimer, School of Health Sciences at the University of Southampton, UK
    Carl Thompson, University of York, UK

    Increasingly, new and extended roles and responsibilities for nurses are being supported through the introduction of clinical decision support systems (CDSS). This chapter provides an overview of research on nurses’ use of CDSS, considers the impact of CDSS on nurse decision making and patient outcomes, and explores the socio-technical factors that impact the use of CDSS. The chapter presents the results of a multi-site case study that explored how CDSS are used by nurses in practice in a range of contexts. The study reveals that how a system is used and may vary considerably from the original intentions of the system designer.

Chapter IV: Culturally Sensitive Healthcare for Newcomer Immigrants

    Jerono Rotich, North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University, USA

    This chapter will give an overview of the healthcare-related challenges that most newcomer immigrants and refugees encounter as they acculturate into their new environments in Western countries. It will highlight practical tips that can: a) enhance the caregiver and patient relationships across cultures and across continents; b) enhance culturally sensitive healthcare services; and c) help to create culturally inviting healthcare environments. It is also evident that, although these newcomers enrich their new nations with their diverse backgrounds, language, and cultural differences, each continues to pose formidable obstacles to their health, healthcare providers, and the health system in general. While the patients and providers realize the effects of immigration on the quality and access to healthcare, they seem to be overwhelmed by the barriers.

Chapter V: Mobile Technology in a Developing Context: Impacts and Directions for Nursing

    Pammla Petrucka, University of Saskatchewan, Canada
    Sandra Bassendowski, University of Saskatchewan, Canada
    Thomas F. James, Apogia Networks, Ltd. , Canada
    Hazel Roberts, Government of St. Kitts-Nevis, Ministry of Health, Canada
    June Anonson, University of Saskatchewan, Canada

    This chapter presents the imperatives of mobile technologies in the healthcare. It presents the contextual overview in development of the diffusion, penetration, and uptake of health-related mobile technologies. A consideration of the roles and responsibilities of the diaspora in the embracing of information and communication technologies is emphasized. Key examples of mobile technologies in development to increase understanding and demonstrate promising practices in this emergent field are given.

Chapter VI: Nursing Documentation in a Mature EHR System

    Kenric W. Hammond, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, USA
    Charlene R. Weir, University of Utah, USA
    Efthimis Efthimiadis, University of Washington Information School, USA

    Computerized patient care documentation (CPD) is a vital part of a Patient Care Information System (PCIS). Studying CPD in a well-established PCIS is useful because problems of system adoption and start-up do not interfere with observations. Factors interfering with optimal nursing use of CPD are particularly challenging and of great concern, given today’s shortage of nursing manpower. The chapter describes problems and advantages of CPD usage identified by nurses in a series of research interviews. It is shown that explicit consideration of nursing workflow constraints and communication processes is necessary for development of effective nursing documentation systems. Some findings point to a PCIS reconfiguration strategy that is feasible in the short term. Other findings suggest the value of considering mobile and team-oriented technologies in future versions of the PCIS.

Chapter VII: Nurses and Telehealth: Current Practice and Future Trends

    Sisira Edirippulige, University of Queensland, Australia
    Anthony C. Smith, University of Queensland, Australia
    Mark Bensink, University of Queensland, Australia
    Nigel Armfield, University of Queensland, Australia
    Richard Wootton, University of Queensland, Australia

    Home telehealth, the use of information and communication technologies to deliver and support healthcare directly to the home, is emerging as an important application for nurses. This chapter provides an overview of home telehealth and how it may be applied to the practical challenges nurses face everyday. We provide a summary of the evidence available to support its use in specific areas and a guide for those thinking of implementing telehealth in their own practice. The future of home telehealth lies in carefully considered and designed research, ongoing education, and training and a multidisciplinary approach.

Chapter VIII: Successful Online Teaching and Learning Strategies

    Mary D. Oriol, Loyola University New Orleans, USA
    Gail Tumulty, Loyola University New Orleans, USA

    This chapter presents a theoretical framework and research base for the successful transition of an established Master of Science in Nursing program from that of traditional classroom delivery to one that is Web-based with no geographic limitations to students. The application of socio-technical systems theory to facilitate creation of a positive learning environment for future nurse leaders is described. Use of social processes and application of technology to optimize learning is explained and the latest research on content presentation and student engagement in an e-learning environment are presented. The chapter gives an understanding of the competencies necessary for students and faculty to be successful in online education.

Chapter IX: Shaping Funding Policy for Nursing Services

    Virginia Plummer, Monash University, Australia

    Concerning nursing resource allocation health service executives have different views about whether systems based on ratios or those based on patient dependency are more accurate. This chapter reports on a statistical analysis of almost 2 million hours of nursing data provided by 22 acute care public and private hospitals in Australia, New Zealand and Thailand. To evaluate both ways an informatics system was used which has the capacity to simultaneously measure nurse patient ratios and nursing workloads by a dependency method of nursing hours per patient day. The results showed that it predicts actual direct nursing care requirements with greater accuracy than ratios for all hospital and patient types, facilitating better allocation of nursing resources and demonstrating that the cost of nursing care would be less for hospitals using that system than for ratios.

Chapter X: Simulations to Assess Medication Administration Systems

    Elizabeth M. Borycki, University of Victoria, Canada
    Andre W. Kushniruk, University of Victoria, Canada
    Shigeki Kuwata, Tottori University Hospital, Japan
    Hiromi Watanabe, Tottori University Hospital, Japan

    A range of new technologies/information systems are being implemented in clinical settings in order to reduce errors associated with the medication administration process. Simulation methods can be used to assess the impact of integrating new technology/information systems into the nurses’ work environment prior to full-scale implementation of a health technology/information system. Simulations as an evaluative tool emerged from a direct need to assess unintended and intended consequences of health information systems upon nurses’ work before systems are fully implemented. Nurse information use of simulations to assess and test health technologies/information systems will allow nurses to determine the impact of a new software and/or hardware upon aspects of nurses’ work before its implementation to allow for appropriate system modifications.

Chapter XI: Socio-Technical Structures, 4Ps and Hodges' model

    Peter Jones, NHS Community Mental Health Nursing Older Adults, UK

    This chapter explores the potential of a conceptual framework – Hodges’ model – both as a socio-technical structure and means to explore such structures of relevance to nursing informatics theory and practice. The model can be applied universally by virtue of its structure and the content which it can encompass. In apprehending this chapter, readers will be able to draw, describe, and explain the scope of Hodges’ model within contemporary healthcare contexts and the wider global issues presented by the 21st century that influence and shape nursing informatics. Critically, the reader will also gain insight into how socio-technical structures can facilitate cross fertilization of clinical and informatics theory and practice; drawing attention to information as a concept that provides a bridge between socio-technical, clinical, and informatics disciplines. The paper will review the socio-technical literature and venture definitions of socio-technical structures related to Hodges’ model and advocate the need for sociopolitical-technical structures. This chapter also proposes the 4Ps as a tool to facilitate reflection upon and the construction of socio-technical structures. The adoption and significance of the hyphenated form as per “socio-technical” will also be explained.

Chapter XII: Strategies for Creating Virtual Learning Communities

    Beth Perry Mahler, Athabasca University, Canada
    Margaret Edwards, Athabasca University, Canada

    Teaching nursing online requires teachers to purposefully use strategies that facilitate the development of virtual learning communities. This chapter proposes answers to the question, “How can educators effectively teach the very social discipline of nursing in virtual classrooms?” Specific online teaching strategies including Photovoice, Virtual Reflective Centers, and Conceptual Quilting are explored. The social and socio-technical implications of teaching nursing online are considered. A final section in the chapter describes how these developments in online nursing education are changing the social and pedagogical perspectives of distance learning. Research questions that arise from this exploration are presented.

Chapter XIII: The Impact of Technology in Organizational Communication

    Roberta Cuel, University of Trento, Italy
    Roberta Ferrario, Laboratory for Applied Ontology (ISTC-CNR), Italy

    In this chapter a case study is presented, in which the ethnomethodological approach is used to analyze the impact of the implementation of an information system, called Sispes, on organizational communication processes in the residence for elderly Giovanelli (Italy). Sispes is a Web-based platform which sustains communication processes and knowledge management according to a customized workflow management system. Adopting structuration theories in the analysis of the case study, and taking inspiration from the philosophical tradition, especially in epistemology and in the analytic philosophy of law, an innovative perspective is adopted, which specifically acknowledges the role played by the communication processes in shaping both the attitudes of the involved actors and the social reality in which they are immersed. According to this perspective, three types of communication processes are presented, namely the normative, descriptive and constructive approach. These latter are then applied to a concrete case study.

Chapter XIV: The Roles of a Nurse in Telemedical Consultations

    Boris A. Kobrinsky, Moscow Research Institute for Paediatrics and Children’s Surgery, Russia
    Nikolay V. Matveev, Moscow Research Institute for Paediatrics and Children’s Surgery, Russia

    Telemedicine, or distant medical consultations using communication via electronic networks, is gradually becoming a standard of medical care delivery in distant areas worldwide, including both the most developed and the developing countries. For instance, in 2007 telemedical centres existed in 55% of the Russian regions (on average, about 4 centres in each region). In most of the cases, nurses are actively involved into organization of various types of distant consultation. Main types of telemedical services include: (1) emergency consultations of patients by telephone (2) telemedical consultations using videoconferences or store-and-forward systems and (3) home telecare systems. Possible roles of nurses in different types of telemedical consultations are discussed.

Chapter XV: The Role of EBM and Nursing Informatics in Rural Australia

    Daniel Carbone, University of Melbourne, Australia

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss broadly the need for enhanced evidence-based medicine (EBM) by nurses in the context of rural Australia and the role that nursing informatics and an informed strategy could facilitate in making such need a feasible reality. First, the introduction highlights current time gaps between health discoveries and eventual practice and the potential for information technology to positively affect this gap. Then, the need for nurses to take an active role in evidence-based medicine in rural settings is argued. The link between information literacy and evidence medicine is consequently presented and gaps in knowledge regarding nursing informatics training are highlighted. Concluding with the argument that to achieve evidence-based research and eventual use, there needs to be a purposeful health informatics learning strategy that recognises the role of computer and information literacy.

Chapter XVI: Use of Handheld Computers in Nursing Education

    Maureen Farrell, University of Ballarat, and RMIT University, Australia

    The use of mobile technologies in nursing education is rapidly increasing. Handheld computers are the most frequently used of these technologies as they can provide students with information for point of care clinical reference, such as diagnostics, medical terminology, and drug references. Integrating the management and processing of information into clinical practice is an effective learning approach for students and reflects a changing paradigm in nursing education. Traditionally, nursing programs have the tendency to separate the acquisition of academic knowledge from clinical practice, and the process of integrating academic information into the decision-making processes in the clinical area has been difficult for student nurses. This chapter will provide an overview of the use of handheld computers in nursing and medical education, including a brief synopsis of current use in clinical practice. It will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of their use, barriers to implementation and future directions.

Chapter XVII: Using Information Technology in Nursing Education

    Elizabeth Rogerson,University of Dundee, UK
    Linda Martindale, University of Maryland School of Nursing, USA
    Carolyn Waltz, University of Maryland School of Nursing, USA

    This chapter addresses issues relating to nursing informatics as used and applied in nursing education. This includes the use of information technology (IT) in delivering nursing education, as well as the teaching of IT and informatics skills to prepare nurses for practice. Drivers associated with the development and use of IT in nursing education are discussed, as well as current use of IT in nursing education and practice, including both mainstream and emerging technologies. Lastly some key issues for the future are identified. Internationalism is regarded as a consistent theme in IT development and occurs as a recurring thread throughout this chapter.

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