Hodges' Model: Welcome to the QUAD

Hodges' Model: Welcome to the QUAD

Hodges' model is a conceptual framework to support reflection and critical thinking. Situated, the model can help integrate all disciplines (academic and professional). Amid news items, are posts that illustrate the scope and application of the model. A bibliography and A4 template are provided in the sidebar. Welcome to the QUAD ...

Sunday, December 10, 2023

Tower blocks: Challenge young and older - Courtesy the Artist © Stephen Willats (Revisited)


"Stephen Willats aimed to explore the realities of living in a British tower block. The work centres on Mrs Moran, an elderly woman who lived at Skeffington Court in Hayes, West London. Willats photographed and interviewed Mrs Moran over the course of six months. The text in the work is based on these interviews. In his composition, Willats highlights the physical, social and economic constraints that she faced. Each panel also features a question. These invite the viewer to participate directly in Mrs Moran’s lived experiences."

Gallery label, September 2023

Tower blocks are an integral, defining structure in urban and city life. Governance, effective policy, accountability, high standards, public safety and duty of care must not be an after-thought. 

     INTERPERSONAL    :     SCIENCES               
HUMANISTIC --------------------------------------  MECHANISTIC      
© Stephen Willats
© Stephen Willats
© Stephen Willats

Grenfell Tower Inquiry

Housing policy
Housing provision
Housing market



Private, rented
Housing Assoc. ...

Tower Blocks

Life chances -
'Health career'

My source: notebook, as with -


Plus, a previous post:

5th March at Tate Liverpool, the exhibition: "Keywords. Art, Society and Culture in 1980s Britain" from 28 Feb 2014 to 11 May 2014.

See also (listed in the bibliography):
Iris Lohja, Yves Demazeau, Christine Verdier. A multi-agent system approach to dynamic ridesharing for older people: State-of-the-art work and preliminary design. 18èmes Rencontres des Jeunes Chercheurs en Intelligence Artificielle, RJCIA’20, Jun 2020, Angers, France. pp.52-59. ⟨hal-02897446

Saturday, December 09, 2023

Processing people ... in Nursing and Social Services

 When the nursing process was introduced in the UK in the late 1970s - early 1980s, the change was resisted to a degree with concern that patients were at risk of being  'processed': assessed, care planned, interventions delivered then evaluated, discharged or re-assessed. ...

     INTERPERSONAL    :     SCIENCES               
HUMANISTIC --------------------------------------  MECHANISTIC      
my quality of life
my quality of care

Emotional, Health and Care Plans

Teaching Assistant provision

continuity of care 


my quality of life
my quality of care

self-care - feeding
23% rise in demand 
for school transport

Human geography


'informal carers'

needs that can (supposedly) be met at home

Government funding crisis

social inclusion

social capital

Care in the community


£4bn overall funding gap in
children's services

Children and Families Act
Index of Multiple Deprivation
Needs-based funding?
Children with special educational needs and disabilites (SEND)

Parental resort to specialist tribunal courts: 96% legal challenges successful (2022)
National / local taxation

'broken' social care market - "dysfunctional"

"The costs are rising inexorably," he said. "Children are very often being processed rather than looked after."

Williams, J. Children at sharp end of council funding crisis, FTWeekend, 2-3 December 2023, p.3.

🤔Just a thought - every supply has a supply' every demand a demand' potentially duplicated across the care domains.

Friday, December 08, 2023

The Digital Collective (DC) a Symposium: Digitalisation, Subjectivities, and Care

Dear colleagues, 

We recognise that many people who wanted to join our symposium on Digitalisation, subjectivities, and care were unable to join in person. For this and other reasons we have moved our symposium to be fully online. Our intention is for the symposium to be accessible to all of our colleagues including those who are outside the NL. 

If this is you, we hope you will now consider submitting an abstract, and as such we have extended the deadline to 31 January 2024.

Decisions will be made by 14 February 2024.

Please find the amended call below.

CFP: Digitalisation, subjectivities, and care
7 March 2024, 9.30am – 6pm, online
Deadline abstract submission: 27 November

The Digital Collective (DC) at the University of Twente in the Netherlands is planning a symposium on digitalisation in care. More information below. Please consider submitting an abstract for a talk or poster presentation, deadline: 31 January 2024. 

Any questions to: dc-bms AT utwente.nl 


Digitalisation is more than a technological phenomenon. It concerns an ever shifting relation between digital technologies and societal developments. Digital tools are increasingly common in care contexts, reshaping practices, institutions, relations, and social structures. Understanding digitalisation of care therefore requires a multidisciplinary approach to distinct yet related issues that cover the scale of technology innovation, societal impacts (benefits and drawbacks), as well as the pace of development and its ubiquitous nature. In this interdisciplinary symposium we will therefore explore the relation between digital tools and those who use them, willingly or otherwise. 

Topics of interest:

Possible topics related to digitalisation include, but are not limited to: 

  • Digital users and digital tools
  • Care institutions
  • Data development / use in digital care contexts
  • Epistemic injustice in digital care contexts 
  • Perspectives on ‘users’ of digital care content
  • Realities and subjectivities of ‘digital users’ 
  • (Multi-)methodological approaches to digital care
  • Care labour economies
  • Global justice perspectives on care
  • Human-technology relations
  • Health economics 
  • Health Technology Assessment of digital health technologies

The DC is a multidisciplinary platform and we welcome submissions from a broad range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary perspectives, including from outside academia.

Overview of the symposium:

Schedule and further information about the day to follow.

Submission deadlines:

  • Extended abstract submission: Wednesday, 31 January 2024
  • Notification of decisions: Wednesday, 14 February 2024

Please note:

  • Extended abstracts should be between 500 and 1000 words. 
  • Submissions should be sent by email to dc-bms AT utwente.nl 
  • Poster proposals should be sent to the same email, and clearly labelled as such. 
  • If you want your work to be considered for both a presentation and a poster, please make this clear in your submission. Abstracts not accepted for presentation may be invited to present a poster instead.
  • Each submission will receive at least two reviews. 

Additional information:

The Digital Collective (DC) is an interdisciplinary research platform on digitalisation at the University of Twente in the Netherlands. DC consists of social scientists and philosophers specialised in digitalisation and with domain expertise in health, higher education, artificial intelligence, and related technologies. 

After the symposium the DC intends to build a consortium with a view to developing collaborative work, including for a Horizon Europe funding proposal.


Event and venue information:


The event will be free for all participants. It will be fully online. Further details to follow.

Symposium organisers and programme Committee:

Please send questions to: dc-bms AT utwente.nl 

Dr Y. J. Erden

Associate Professor in Philosophy
University of Twente
AISB Vice Chair 

My source:

Philos-L "The Liverpool List" is run by the Department of Philosophy, University of Liverpool https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/philosophy/philos-l/ 

Follow the list on Twitter @PhilosL. Follow the Department of Philosophy @LiverpoolPhilos 

n.b. With the event now including provision for online presentations I am submitting an abstract.

Thursday, December 07, 2023

Kathryn Jackson - Dow Jones Dealing Room 1994

     INTERPERSONAL    :     SCIENCES               
HUMANISTIC --------------------------------------  MECHANISTIC      

Ack. Kathryn Jackson. Dow Jones Dealing Room (1994) 3-D collage

My source:
Jackson, K. another dimension, Artists & Illustrators, June 1998, 141, pp.22-23.

Wednesday, December 06, 2023

COP 28: The water runs deep and broad - Solastalgia for all?

me - you INDIVIDUAL - the few
     INTERPERSONAL    :     SCIENCES               
HUMANISTIC --------------------------------------  MECHANISTIC      
others - GROUP - many
climate anxiety

eco grief

... as yet unforeseen impacts ...

[personal and collective]
Raise A Paddle
© Fenton Lutunatabua / 350.org
Underwater Cabinet Meeting in the Maldives

political malaise?

"'Solastalgia' was first coined by the philosopher Glenn Albrecht almost two decades ago; it is a blend of the Latin word "solacium" (comfort) and the Greek root "-algia" (pain or grief). Solastalgia, argued Albrecht, was a way to convey the idea of distress caused by irreversible environmental transformation. It is 'the homesickness we feel while still at home', he writes."

Where exactly do politicians and capitalists 'live'?

Frankopan, P., How to avert an 'eco grief' epidemic, The Daily Telegraph, 12 August 2023, pp.6-7.

Maldives image c/o:

Raise A Paddle c/o NMS:

Sunday, December 03, 2023

Four* care domains - revisited ...

     INTERPERSONAL    :     SCIENCES               
HUMANISTIC --------------------------------------  MECHANISTIC      

My source: https://x.com/LeanneHPatrick/status/1731311359554371938?s=20

*Hodges' model can be embedded within the spiritual as per the situation - context.

Saturday, December 02, 2023

'Safe space' - which one?

     INTERPERSONAL    :     SCIENCES               
HUMANISTIC --------------------------------------  MECHANISTIC      
psychological safety

physical safety

social safety

"NHS staff will be able to speak out about mistakes without fear of reprisal for the first time, thanks to a new investigation unit with "safe space" powers.
The Health Services Safety Investigations Body (HSSIB), which was launched last week, has been granted a remit that in effect means any testimony or evidence given to it by doctors, nurses and other staff medical staff will not be handed over to another agency - such as the police, a coroner or the General Medical Council - unless the High Court rules that it must."

Lintern, S. 'Safe space' unit to protect NHS staff reporting medical errors, The Sunday Times, 22nd October 2023, p.11.

BGS Report "Smarter data, better care: Empowering care homes to use data to transform quality of care"



"The British Geriatrics Society (BGS) hosted an event in London in September 2023 on ideas and practice around a minimum dataset for care homes. This report, which is based on presentations at the event and the debate that followed, makes 12 recommendations for the effective implementation and delivery of a national minimum dataset that we believe policy-makers and regulators should consider."
Below, I have related the report's 12 recommendations to Hodges' model:

     INTERPERSONAL    :     SCIENCES               
HUMANISTIC --------------------------------------  MECHANISTIC      
my quality of life
my quality of care

care home residents

research - how new Artificial Intelligence can be harnessed safely and ethically to extract optimum value^^ out of linked social care data

my quality of life
my quality of care

integration - a harmonised set of
quality of life and quality of care indicators

not just a process* (data gathering/entry) by care sector on behalf of others

high-level of interoperability

resident's families (advocate)

needs that cannot be met at home

^Government recognition of contribution of social care sector to society

linking of information sources, preserving privacy but improving public's understanding of how such data can be used (benefits)

combine learning from the DACHA study, evidence of the analytic power of data instruments like interRAI, and the lived experience of those working in our care sector

care home managers & frontline staff

shared decision-making - commissioners, regulators and providers

sector-wide conversation around the data that does and does not need to be known by different stakeholders

Investment in a data-informed system for health care and social care - greater equity between the two^

sustained - longer term approach - reduce the data burden

Government funding of dedicated in-home data coordinators - cost recognised from outset

4Ps in Hodges' model -

SCIENCES - process
SOCIOLOGY - practice
POLITICAL - policy

^^Where does 'optimum value' lie in Hodges' model?
How are these reconciled?

Transforming the quality of care in care homes through better use of data.  https://www.bgs.org.uk/policy-and-media/transforming-the-quality-of-care-in-care-homes-through-better-use-of-data 

Wednesday, November 29, 2023

Mathematical 'objects' c/o TPM

     INTERPERSONAL    :     SCIENCES               
HUMANISTIC --------------------------------------  MECHANISTIC      

"Fine's position is called 'procedural postulationism'. When we postulate, when we do a certain sort of reflection on mathematical objects, our acts in a sense bring those objects into existence. But what's going on is not quite like author imagining a character. It's more like intellectually bumping into something, where the bumping and the something result in a new grip on mathematical objects. But he suggests that the objects, once we have them, in a  sense have always been there. I ask him how he makes sense of the idea." p.23.

"The right picture isn't one in which we just create the objects the way you might create a statue, bring into existence something that didn't exist before. What you're doing when you postulate is extending the domain of quantification, you're extending the objects about which you're talking. It's not that you're bringing them into existence. You're targeting the domain of quantification, a domain of discourse which hadn't been previously targeted. These objects are themselves mathematical objects that don't exist in time, in fact, if they exist they necessarily exist. So it's not that they previously didn't exist, it's just that you now managed to target a new domain of eternal, necessary existence." p.23.

"Logical and philosophical investigations into parts and wholes have been dominated by a certain tradition that goes under the name 'mereology'. ... I hold the view according to which there are many different ways in which parts can form wholes, and many of those ways are not mere sums. I think it's unfortunate for philosophy that philosophers focus so much on mereology as traditionally conceived."
"But how can a thing be more than the sum of its parts? Where does the more come from? Fine explains, 'If you take a tower of blocks that a child might make, that's composed of the blocks, but it's not a mere sum of the blocks. The blocks have to be in a certain order, one has to be on top of the other. I'm inclined to think of that tower as the blocks in a certain arrangement. So when you think of it in that way it's not a mere sum of the blocks. If you want to actually understand mereological structure as it's presented to us, it's very rare that we're going to be talking about mere sums. We're going to be talking about objects structured in a certain way to constitute a whole.'" p.25.

Garvey, J., with Fine, K. The silence of the lambdas, The Philosopher's Magazine, 4th Quarter 2011. 55: pp.19-27

Saturday, November 25, 2023

South Sudan Medical Journal - November 2023 Gender-Based Violence

Dear reader,

Our November issue on gender-based violence (GBV) is online here. See details below; we thank the many people who contributed to this important topic.
Please share this issue with your colleagues and promote it through your social platforms.

For example: “The South Sudan Medical Journal’s November issue tackles gender-based violence @SSMedJournal #SouthSudan #SSOT” or retweet from @SSMedJournal


  • Maternal socio-economic and neonatal medical characteristics associated with survival of preterm neonates in Torit State Hospital, South Sudan: a descriptive cross-sectional study Beatrice Doki, Pontius Bayo and Ronald Jada
  • Factors associated with maternal deaths in Bongor Provincial Hospital, Chad Gabkika Bray Madoué, Allarehene Noudjalbaye, Saleh Abdelsalam, Kainba Passoret, and Diguisna Kadam

  • Gender-Based Violence: How South Sudan is fighting back Nyakomi Adwok
  • Clinical management of rape survivors Koma Akim
  • One Stop Centre for the survivors of sexual and gender-based violence at Juba Teaching Hospital Busiri Julius Korsuk
  • SSMJ talks to Data Gordon about Men4Women Ann Burgess and Data Gordon
  • Ask the GBV experts Koma Akim and Nyakomi Adwok
  • The reality of GBV: The story of a South Sudanese girl child in Kenya Nyajuok Tongyik
  • 16 Days of Activism Against GBV Rita Martin Lopidia  
  • Resources on gender-based violence/violence against women and girls related to South Sudan
  • GBV Educational/Training Resources

  • Applications for postgraduate Training Gordon Memorial College Trust Fund (GMCTF)
  • Letter to the Editor
  • Obituary: Dr Bashir Aggrey Abbas Meseka 
  • Obituary: Dr Peter Lado Aggrey Jaden

FRONT AND BACK COVERS IMAGES: From Tales of Lala, No to GBV (Credit: Crown the Woman, South Sudan)
Our articles are listed by African Journals Online (AJOL) and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) as well as being on our websiteSSMJ is included in the EBSCO scientific research collection.

The SSMJ team
Email: southsudanmedicaljournal AT gmail.com
Website: http://www.southsudanmedicaljournal.com
Follow us on Twitter/X @SSMedJournal and our Facebook Group

Thursday, November 23, 2023

Hodges' model - as 'a' philosophy c/o TPM

As much as I might like, or aspire to write, this is not a treatise on Hodges' model as a philosophy. Anyway: why limit ourselves to one 'philosophy', when several might apply, or at least be found?

Other TPM articles within the 50 new ideas issue point to Hodges' model (of course 😉).

Philosophy itself may benefit. Philosophy is "the love of wisdom". While there are dangers in siloed kowledge and the thought that put it there, what is classed as wise across the domains of Hodges' model in a given context? Contexts change, but how can philosophical reasoning help us 'keep our options open'? Or is the situation and context 'closed'? 

Again much as I might like, in response to Benatar's Forsaking wisdom (pp.23-24) I'm not trying to clever - even my sense of humour does not extend that far. We do want to apply Hodges' model  practically. Maybe disciplines exist in a perennial state of self-doubt? Peter Boghossian discusses Philosophy that matters (pp.29-30). Nursing is no exception being challenged still regards its professional and academic identity. In mental health nursing there are concerns about the field as a specialty being genericised. The nursing discipline for which identity and meaning is key finds its own identity challenged. Helen De Cruz writes of The Philosopher's rut (pp.41-42). A contributing factor is the tendency in philosophical debates to be dominated by two-well-outlined opposing positions. This framing can stifle exploration, and yet in Hodges' model with oppositions built-in the model as a whole provides conceptual escape; a series of conceptual spaces to explore. 

Hodges' model can help postpone what De Cruz refers to as cognitive closure, another reason for the philosopher's rut. We tend, psychologically to draw quick conclusions such that we are averse to ambiguity. This may be innate to a degree, as seen in 'black and white' thinking. Ironically, for me with Hodges' model is the counterposition of reflection as navel-gazing, resulting in too many options, and no decision at all.  

With the self, I, individual appearing to take a prime position in Hodges' model, Michael Cholbi reminds us of the philosophical significance and history of self-knowledge (pp.35-36). Student nurses need to acquire sufficient substantial self-knowledge to be safe, effective, competent, satisfied and lifelong learning practitioners. In another issue 98 4th Quarter 2022, Jonathan Matheson asks Why Think for Yourself (pp. 26-32), is there a rationale in intellectual autonomy and love of truth? You can exercise your intellectual autonomy and make it collaborative, by deciding on the port of entry to Hodges' model. This is a determinant in terms of the context, the situation that prompts you reach for the model in the first place. 

me - you INDIVIDUAL - the few
     INTERPERSONAL    :     SCIENCES               
HUMANISTIC --------------------------------------  MECHANISTIC      
others - GROUP - many
inherent philosophy in Hodges' model

the mind - my mind
Personal identity
ontology - being - identity
my - beliefs - (yours)

logic - mathematics

concept of opposition^
opposition of concepts^

representation of -isms

ethics - moral reasoning

values - value

unconditional positive regard

physicality - materialism

the brain - my brain - body
Organic identity
implicit binary structure

superimposed relations

coding and classification

language corpora

reality as orientation:
(e.g., what three things do we need to know?)

personalised medicine ('up here')

professional scope - curricula
silos of knowledge

scientific method/methodologies

language - semantics - meaning
'other minds'
practical reasoning

applied philosophy

individual-collective debate:
utilitarian principles

social philosophy

socialisation of learners (professions)

conformance - group think

health in politics
politics in health
human rights

the unborn - future humans

protected human characteristics

diametrical oppositions in Hodges' model
(e.g., 1. my mental state - mental health law; 2. public understanding - of science; 3. my freedom - the law. 4. culture - (techno-culture!) - science...)

power - freedom

political philosophy

In John Corvino's Applied philosophy out of the closet (pp.39-40), I'm not sure if it was Martha Nussbaum who stressed the need for philosophy to be practical. Is this the same as applied? I note her work on capabilities. Hodges' model seeks to reduce the gap between the learning involved in (between - hence bridging) theory and practice - to achieve competencies. For the future of (Brian) Hodges' model this matters, as I understand that efforts are ongoing to apply category theory to the social sciences. It is a pragmatic conceptual structure. To return to identity, A M Ferner tackles (literally?) Organic identity (pp.49-50); while Kerrie Grain takes on what is next-door in Hodges' model - Personal identity (pp. 51-52). As I continue to sort papers, journals and books there is more to follow. 

The Philosopher's Magazine, "50 New Ideas", 1st Quarter 2016. Issue 72. pp.20-120.

TPM #72 cover image: https://ericthomasweber.org/correcting-political-correctness/

Needham, R. (1987). Counterpoints. Berkeley: University of California Press.
(Looking f/w - I think - to chapters 7-8. With specific post(s) to follow.)

Wednesday, November 22, 2023

Your story about the use of the Resilient Health Systems evidence collection

Championing evidence-based humanitarian action

Evidence Aid aims to save lives and livelihoods in disasters by providing decision-makers with the best available evidence and by championing its use.

On Wednesday, 22 November 2023 at 10:12:26 GMT, Claire Allen, UK <callen AT evidenceaid.org> wrote:

Kind request - Do you have 5-10 minutes to complete our survey about the Resilient Health Systems evidence collection

Your insights and opinions are incredibly valuable to us.

The form will be available until Monday 27 November 2023, but in the meantime, if you have any issues, please do not hesitate to contact - 

Epa La Bella at elabella AT evidenceaid.org.

As always, we value your insight and opinions, all of which are essential to the functioning of Evidence Aid.

Claire Allen, Operations Manager Evidence Aid: Championing evidence-based humanitarian action. Please note that my regular working days are Monday, Tuesday and Thursday. Please do not expect a response outside of those days.

Support our activities by donating here.

Email: callen AT evidenceaid.org | Skype: claireallencochrane | Website: www.evidenceaid.org | Twitter: @EvidenceAid

Our evidence collections can be found here: https://www.evidenceaid.org/evidence/

HIFA profile (and my source): Claire Allen is Operations Manager at Evidence Aid, UK. Professional interests: Evidence Aid (www.evidenceaid.org) provides evidence for people in disaster preparedness and response to make better decisions. Areas of interest = humanitarian crises, natural disasters and major healthcare emergencies (disaster = when a country is unable to cope with the disaster/crisis or emergency). She is a member of the HIFA Working Group on Access to Health Research. http://www.hifa.org/working-groups/access-health-research Email: callen AT evidenceaid.org