Hodges' Model: Welcome to the QUAD: January 2016

- learn about the conceptual framework Hodges' model. A tool that can help integrate HEALTH and SOCIAL CARE, INFORMATICS and EDUCATION. The model is situated, facilitates person-centredness, integrated - holistic care and reflective practice. A new site using Drupal is an ongoing aim - the creation of a reflective workbench. Email: h2cmng @ yahoo.co.uk Welcome

Saturday, January 30, 2016

Video: Concepts for Nursing Practice, Giddens

With an email seemingly lost I have registered and applied for a review copy of Gidden's Concepts for Nursing Practice. The 2e is published next month. I do hope for a positive response.

Gidden's approach, also proposed by others clearly has a great synergy with Hodges' model in concept-based learning and the learner's career. The most interesting aspect of this is to try to respond to the short-comings of a purely conceptual basis for curricula. I'm sure this is possible combining a pragmatic view of knowledge, an evaluation research design, threshold concepts and conceptual spaces with Hodges' model.

Giddens, J. (2013). Concepts for nursing practice. St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby/Elsevier.

Tuesday, January 26, 2016

Sunday, January 24, 2016

Journal special issue 2014: Diagrammatic Reasoning

Diagrammatic Reasoning

Special issue of Pragmatics & Cognition 22:2 (2014)

Edited by Riccardo Fusaroli and Kristian Tylén
[Pragmatics & Cognition, 22:2]  2014.  v, 107 pp.

My source: Humanist Discussion Group, Vol. 29, No. 651.
W. McCarty.

Sensory overload: Pain-ting

humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic
Francis Bacon, Study for the nurse in the film “Battleship Potemkin”, 1957

Tate, Liverpool, 18 May - 18 September 2016 Francis Bacon: Invisible Rooms

Städel Museum. FRANCIS BACON

Zeki, S., & Ishizu, T. (2013). The “Visual Shock” of Francis Bacon: an essay in neuroesthetics. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 850. http://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00850

My source:
Pickford, J. (2016). In focus: Bacon's works come out of the shadows. FT Weekend. 23-24 January. p.2.


Thursday, January 21, 2016

Sensory Deprivation

humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic

Sensory Deprivation Skull chair by Atelier Van Lieshout, 2007

My source:
Heathcote, E. (2016) What is good design? A look at the many definitions of quality, FT Weekend, House&Home, 16-17 January. p.1 and 13.


Wednesday, January 20, 2016

Doctoral student quest... (Delamont et al. 2000 - so true...!)

humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic

It is apparent that there is no single 
definition of the personal, intellectual quest on which doctoral students embark. Indeed we should not expect there to be one . . .

Scientific and academic knowledge 
does not rest on a purely mechanistic set of definitions and requirements. 
(Delamont et al. 2000: 51)

My source: Module 6 reading list.

Delamont, S., Atkinson, P. and Parry, O. (2000). The Doctoral Experience: Success and Failure in Graduate School. London: Falmer.

cited in:
Murray, R. (2003). How to Survive Your Viva : Defending a Thesis in an Oral Examination. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Monday, January 18, 2016

ERCIM News No. 104 Special theme: "Tackling Big Data in the Life Sciences"

Dear ERCIM News Reader,

ERCIM News No. 104 has just been published at http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/en104

This issue features a special theme on "Tackling Big Data in the Life Sciences"
coordinated by the guest editors Roeland Merks (CWI) and Marie-France Sagot (Inria) and a section "research and society" about "Women in ICT Research and Education", coordinated by Lynda Hardman (CWI)

This issue is also available for download in pdf and EPUB.

Thank you for your interest in ERCIM News. Feel free to forward this message to others who might be interested.

Next issue: No. 105, April 2016 - Special Theme: "Planning and Logistics" (see Call for contributions)

Best regards,
Peter Kunz
ERCIM News central editor

Thursday, January 14, 2016

Editorial: "Living dolls and nurses without empathy" mapped to Hodges' model

The example of Hodges' model displayed below is based upon selected concepts and themes taken from the following editorial:

Dean, S., Williams, C. and Balnaves, M. (2016), Living dolls and nurses without empathy. Journal of Advanced Nursing. doi: 10.1111/jan.12891

humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic


empathy - individual ability/quality

'the patient'

patient anxiety:
 emotional - psychological state

interpersonal skills

compassion - PURPOSE
individual values
hearing the person

artificial intelligence

(nurse-based observation skills)

simulation technology - 'living doll'

'the patient' in bed

(simulated) physiological data

cardiac event - crushing chest pain

voice-over technology

-TECHNICAL (machine)



communication skills

public perception




nursing programmes - education


cost of placements

professional values


Some further questions:
Where would you place holistic care?
Where does atomism lie?
In the above model where is situational awareness and how do we recognise an integrated approach?

My source: Trisha Greenhalgh

There is no endorsement intended with this post. 

Saturday, January 09, 2016

Listening with Lines - Force lin-ear

humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic

"The line is a force whose activities are
comparable to those of all the
natural forces." 

Henry Van de Velde


Henry Van de Velde (Wikipedia)

Henry Van de Velde (.pl) (some broken links)
See - The nursing house Trzebiechów

Photo: Wikipedia "Trzebiechklatka" by No machine-readable author provided. Mohylek assumed (based on copyright claims). Licensed under Public Domain via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Trzebiechklatka.jpg#/media/File:Trzebiechklatka.jpg

Friday, January 08, 2016

Multiplistic- Thinking checks and balances [IV]

Johnson’s main source Perry (1970) is developmental in tracing a learner's journey from a dualist tendency, through to multiplistic and the third stage which is relativistic thinking. Having related dualistic thinking to Hodges' model, now it is the turn of the multiplistic.

Just as the axes of Hodges' model can be matched to dualistic thinking (followed by the domains), so the model's four care (or knowledge) domains immediately suggest multiple forms of explanation. Reasoning and reaching an understanding about something is what we usually think of as knowledge. The dualistic brought home the actuality of facts. The age of information technology provides a virtual ocean of facts, knowledge, data, information, wisdom. There is the buzz of the advertisers and social media and their influence on what we think and believe. Family, friends, community, culture all have their influence. We recognise the notion of common sense and tacit knowledge. When knowledge is viewed as content (and we avoid the key matter of access) this is a neutral position, but this neutrality changes irrevocably when context is introduced; when questions of ownership, disciplines and the knowledge of individual and community arise. Who knows? How is their knowledge demonstrated? Why should I/we listen to them? Staying with the political domain the further progression to relativistic thinking becomes apparent. There is the view of the doctor, nurse, social worker, allied health professional as an advocate who is not strictly independent and the representative who is.

As the term 'multiplistic' (and pluralistic) suggests the learner develops an appreciation that there is not necessarily a single answer but several. As Johnson (1994) notes, when an answer is provided, even if this is a voice of authority it is not necessarily correct. There is a distinction to be made between there being potentially many answers and many sources for answers.

The same properties attributed to knowledge objective and subjective (dualism in thought and action) also has a bearing here. From: The logic and evidence of a randomised controlled trial; To: the politics of dogma - “Well, this is the way we have always done it!” There are many types and degrees of quality attributed to knowledge. Debate is ongoing about the definition and meaning of bit, data, information, knowledge and wisdom. Is there a hierarchy there? Where would you put dualist and multiplistic thinking in this mix? Is that a valid question? No? Would you reconsider and proffer an answer if (and to follow) the wise amongst us are experts in relativistic thinking?

Bringing multiplistic thinking to a conclusion frequently and routinely demands a consensus being reached and teamwork. Multiplistic thinking and approaches (pluralism) also tends to throw light on constraints that dualistic views might ignore, or by definition have no need to take account of. So dualism can engender bias, even foster blatant prejudice, in comparison to the context of consensual management for example, which is invariably richer, open, continuous and requires self-awareness and awareness of the other. This is not a vote for consensus, to many it is a game and contention often remains.

Decision making as a process and the many ‘logics’ that people try to apply become evident and the varying quality of the same. Communities of practice have their own terminology. As a learner expands their vocabulary and acquires conceptual knowledge they are able to make the transition from novice, beginner ... to proficient learner (Benner, 1984). The aforementioned virtual realm can processes and produces terminologies of its own, so-called folksonomies. This is one of the multiplicities the learner must literally come to terms with. Hodges' model as a conceptual framework and one or more conceptual spaces is ideally suited to support this learning and learning to learn.

Johnson, D.D. (1994). Dualistic, Multiplistic, and Relativistic Thinking as it Relates to a Psychology Major. Honors Theses. Paper 202.

Perry, W. G. (1970). Forms of intellectual and ethical development in the college years. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Benner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley, pp. 13-34.

Thinking checks and balances [I]

Dualistic- thinking checks and balances [II]

Dualistic- thinking checks and balances [III] (or: The-hyphen)

See also:
Jones, P. (1996) Humans, Information, and Science, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 24(3),591-598.

Thursday, January 07, 2016

Dualistic- thinking checks and balances [III] (or: The-hyphen)

While dualistic thinking is positive as a means to explain Hodges' model, if a form of thinking (reasoning as ego-defence) is relied upon to excess and not balanced by other evidence then this can contribute to psychological problems. As Johnson (1994) also indicates, the three forms of thinking we are discussing in this series of posts are progressive. Compared to dualistic, Johnson states that multiplistic and relativistic thinking represent a more complex level. Appreciating that there are other sources for answers, possibly more than one answer and a need to relate things together.

Dualistic thinking epitomizes the categorical invitation that Hodges' model affords. In its most primitive form it has to be ready to hand and with the mind in an instant it is: the duality of fight or flight. A reflex arc circumvents the dualistic in an effort of instant reduction to survival.

Of course, the model is not intended to encourage thinking in extremes, polarised and absolutist. This property*, however, affirms the model's potential as a health promoting, educational and self-care resource.

There is another form of dualism that is given to us by life not model. It is the dichotomous variety that often influences and shapes attitudes to others, discourse and debate within our many cultures, politics and religious affairs.

The additional set of axes related to disciplines, for example, psych-social - referred to in the previous post [II] tempers the risks above in two ways:

  1. by virtue of the learner expanding their knowledge and hence the number of concepts they understand and in-form their community of practice.
  2. there is a space between the disciplines and concepts that might further support the structure, content and utility of Hodges' model.
The space lies in the '-', the hyphen, which can represent a middle ground (Assad, 1999). The axes of Hodges' model could be said to present a continuous hyphen. A cognitive pause (check): a token to collect as we reflect, especially if we cross disciplinary thresholds consciously or unconsciously. This can counter the aforementioned excesses of dualistic thinking with the addition of assessment and supervision.

I started these posts with what Hodges' model declares from the outset. This is the model's structure, the configuration of the axes the appearance of the (empty) quadrants. But as experience is gathered so the axes fade into the distance. They become grey and blue as in a background, a template we start to take for granted and work around, with and within. Content in the form of concepts and associated meaning can then populate the foreground that holds the promise of becoming increasingly more integrated which is stimulated by a shift from dualistic thinking to more pluralistic thought.

Assad, M.L. (1999). Reading with Michel Serres: An Encounter with Time. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Johnson, D.D. (1994) Dualistic, Multiplistic, and Relativistic Thinking as it Relates to a Psychology Major. Honors Theses. Paper 202.

*There are many tools that permit us to compare another duality: the binary. The presence or absence of phenomena, for example, a bone injury, or a new star, comet or asteroid.

See previous posts: Michel Serres

See also bibliography item:

Jones, P. (2008) Exploring Serres’ Atlas, Hodges’ Knowledge Domains and the Fusion of Informatics and Cultural Horizons, IN Kidd, T., Chen, I. (Eds.) Social Information Technology Connecting Society and Cultural Issues, Idea Group Publishing, Inc. Chap. 7, pp. 96-109.

Wednesday, January 06, 2016

Dualistic- thinking checks and balances [II]

Continuing from Thinking checks and balances [I] how can Hodges' model help us understand and provide ready access to three forms of thought: these being -

  1. Dualist
  2. Multiplistic
  3. and Relativistic thinking?
To recap, resort to dualist thinking might be a pathway to evidence for Hodges' model building the case for the model in education, healthcare theory, practice and policy making ... Taking each form of thinking in turn, dualist thinking in Hodges' model can be identified in six ways. Before discussing these, there are some general observations to make.

The axes provide an initial compass for differentiation.
The model is first situated (as per B.E. Hodges).
Situation precedes person but should not subvert the latter when the model is applied.
Upon arrival in any context it is what we draw in the sand.

The most obvious influence on thinking is in what the model gives to us through its structure - the two axes. Firstly, the individual - group axis can stand for the many variations of self and other: from patient - health care team; patient - family; citizen - civil society; person - friends (work colleagues); child - parents (or guardian - a status vested legally by others); clinical case - demographic (world) population. This might be considered a compound view, potentially incorporating scope and roles (as per the context).

Secondly, the individual aspect of the vertical axis also serves the reductive requirement of movement between many-one. Reductivism is a fundamental approach in scientific enquiry and quantitative research. There is in the above the reduction to the individual in the intra- interpersonal domain. Reductive descriptions and phenomena from the sciences can then be ascribed to the individual as per the conceptual content of the sciences domain.

The third factor is derived from the first and is evolutionary and developmental. It has a certain irony in also being a child's developmental milestone - the so-called 'terrible twos'. Whatever age an infant starts to assert their independence, establishing, coming to terms with their difference from the adult figures in their lives - this is a pivotal moment. As they set out to become them-selves, we can say that developmentally they, this nascent individual is drawn out of this particular axis. The axis is first of all then not dualist. The self is always a product of the group (even if the latter is absent). The individual, the self emerges from the other. This is an extended dynamic action, through our first 2-3 years. Self flows from otherness.

Illness, disease disruptions what should be the expected relation, crises whether of temperature or emotion places self-other in contention on a temporary or more permanent basis. The ‘health career’ in the full title of Hodges’ model is also pertinent, as this refers to life chances and the life course.

Perhaps, to borrow a term from genetics / chemistry the vertical axis represents a bivalent quality? The vertical axis has that telescopic property. The vertical axis is reflective the individual sees the group; the group sees the individual. Even as we contemplate the patient in person-centred care, what, who are we - the observers?

The fourth cognitive prompt utilises the model's horizontal axis which spans dualist thinking defined by the categories of humanistic and mechanistic. This can also be viewed as human - machine. This axis also gives an indication for the final, fourth type of dualistic thought. Since the 1960s this axis can also be described as the social - technical, or socio-technical (Baxter and Sommerville, 2011). The notion of machine logic then suggests objectivity and the contrast with subjective types of knowledge. This is a fundamental dualism that is debated by philosophers.

The fifth type a dualistic thinking could be described as replacing the axes above and inviting a free-for-all. Is this where creativity and innovation lie? Does this dualistic form open up conceptual probes and avenues to insight (association and relation)? There are a great many dualities, dichotomies, polarities that can (literally) be shot through the model. Through the centre, between adjacent care domains, within domains: consider, for example; demand-supply, mind-body, public sector-private sector-third sector and voluntary admission-sectioned.

Finally and sixth there is a translation, a progression from the axial duality to the epistemological background of the care domains. This can be constructed from the founding (root) disciplines of Hodges' model:
  • Psycho-Social
  • Psycho-Somatic
  • Physico-Political
  • Socio-Political
Superimposed on Hodges' model there is then another set of axes. This could be a means to explain Hodges' model. These trace out the domains of Hodges' model. Is this self-referential quality a coincidence or evidential towards making the case for Hodges' model? These axes act as either, or both a bridge and a brace. Since structure is all about geometry we can close at this point by noting that the strength of the triangle. In Hodges' model there are several diametrical dualities (oppositions), for example:

medicine - society*
individual - political involvement
a society's engagement in - the sciences
individual (demand) Political - health services (supply)
the individual who is mentally ill and the State, Mental Health Act legislation

As we see in this post in addressing dualities Hodges' model is concerned with DISCIP-LINES.

*Medicine and society represent a duality and an established discipline in medical sociology? Socio-technical is not a discipline in this sense and might provide a theoretical contrast - marker?

(The above and posts to follow are a work in progress and will form a larger - referenced - whole in terms of studies.)

Baxter, G. Sommerville, I. (2011) Socio-technical systems: From design methods to systems engineering. Interacting with Computers, 23 (1): 4-17 doi:10.1016/j.intcom.2010.07.003

Tuesday, January 05, 2016

Thinking checks and balances [I]

Following on from last month's -

Newton and Einstein had it right - Reflection in H2CM

- this is the first of several posts on learners, their career (and yours as a lifelong learner), reflection, thinking and researching Hodges' model.

In several papers on Hodges’ model and in numerous blog posts I’ve made many claims about the scope, versatility, potential utility and power of the model as a tool for reflection, assuring reflective practice, bridging the theory-practice gap, and supporting person centred and integrated care.

This is quite a claim, especially using words like scope, versatility, potential utility and power. Without evidence these words are not so much virtual as vapour – nebulous in terms of what they really mean.

What (I believe) Hodges’ model does provide simultaneously through its combined structure and care (knowledge) domains is ready cognitive access to three forms of thought:
  1. Dualist
  2. Multiplistic
  3. and Relativistic Thinking
Johnson and the sources cited describe a developmental pathway for learners through 1-3.

If I or other interested parties could demonstrate that Hodges’ model does encompass all three that would be progress.

As many previous posts reveal this trinity isn't the only idea to support the model. Amid the many ongoing questions is balance and clearly the conventional view of balance is not sufficient for learners in the 21st century.

Tomorrow some thoughts about dualistic thinking and Hodges' model.

Johnson, D.D. (1994) Dualistic, Multiplistic, and Relativistic Thinking as it Relates to a Psychology Major. Honors Theses. Paper 202. http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/uhp_theses/202/

Sunday, January 03, 2016

Autonomy Cube(d)

OBSERVATION  ---------------------------------------  OBSERVATION

Trevor Paglen and Jacob Appelbaum, 
Autonomy Cube, 2015. 
Photo: Trevor Paglen

"When installed in a gallery, the cube creates an open Wifi hotspot that uses the alternative Tor network to anonymise internet use."
Jobey, L., (2016)  Trevor Paglen What Lies Beneath, FT Magazine, 2-3 January. p.20.

Trevor Paglen: Autonomy Cube (2014)

Whitechapel Gallery, London, January 29 to May 15.

Photo source: e-flux - Edith-Russ-Haus for Media Art

                             Autonomy-Advocacy Cubed?
     Late 1970s                      1980s-1990s                         2000s...
   Nurse Advocate                 Nurse as Advocate?             Independent Advocacy
             Ongoing nurse advocacy role amid the politics of healthcare...

Friday, January 01, 2016

Book: "The Life Project"

The Life Project Helen Pearson

"The remarkable story of a unique series of studies that have touched the lives of almost everyone in Britain today.

On 5th March 1946 a survey began that is, today, the longest-running study of human development in the world, and has grown to encompass six generations of children and over 70,000 people. They have become some of the best-studied people on the planet. The simple act of observing human life has changed the way we are born, schooled, parent and die, and irrevocably altered our understanding of inequality and health. This is the tale of these studies, the scientists who created and sustain them, the discoveries that have come from them. The envy of scientists around the world, they are one of Britain's best-kept secrets."

[Published: 3 March 2016]

(The Life Project? "What's yours?")