- learn about the conceptual framework Hodges' model. A tool that can help integrate HEALTH and SOCIAL CARE, INFORMATICS and EDUCATION. The model is situated, facilitates person-centredness, integrated - holistic care and reflective practice. A new site using Drupal is an ongoing aim - the creation of a reflective workbench. Email: h2cmng @ yahoo.co.uk Welcome

Sunday, January 31, 2016

Join the Grid: Africa Research Methods Library of Alexandria


“In Africa there are so few people trained in research methods. Without skills in research methods and training, one cannot publish in top journals. What then can be done to change this?"
Professor Ron LaPorte, Emeritus Professor of Epidemiology and co-founder of the Supercourse of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh WHO collaborating Center.

In answer to the challenge posed in the quote by Professor LaPorte, in collaboration with the team at the Library of Alexandria, we have developed a completely free (open access) research methods library that is one of the largest in the world where faculty and students can go to have their research methods answers answered, and we encourage researchers, faculties and students across Africa to be part of the new Africa Rising in research.

Let me share this abstract by some of my colleagues on the work we are doing at in an article presented to the Society for the Advancement of Science in Africa (SASA) 3rd International Annual Conference, which held in Toronto, Canada in August 29015, with the title : “Research Methods Library of Alexandria to Boost Scientific Productivity in Africa”. It was led by Ronald LaPorte, Ph.D, (University of Pittsburgh) with Ismail Serageldin, Ph.D., (Library of Alexandria), Musa Kana, M.D. , Eugene Schubnikov, M.D., and Faina Linkov, Ph.D. as co-authors . The abstract read:

"During the past decade there has been a threefold marked acceleration of research in Africa. Despite this increase, still only 2.5% of the world’s literature is published from Africa. We want to markedly increase this. Often, when people see this fact, they argue that more international and national money should be spent. However, it is unlikely in the near future that there will be a marked increase in funding for science.

We have taken a different, potentially very effective, but frugal approach. For 76% of the articles that are rejected, the reason is due to poor research methods. In Africa, there are brilliant young investigators with outstanding research ideas, yet they have problems publishing. The reason for the difficulty is what we call “stataphobia”, which is the fear of statistics and not having access to help. In Africa, in many countries, there are few people trained in research methods. It does not matter how bright a young person is, they cannot publish without a knowledge of statistics.

We therefore have built the “Research Methods Library of Alexandria (RMLA)”.


This is a one-stop shopping center for answers to research methods. We have over 2,000 research and YouTube presentations, an “ask a research librarian”, numerous courses, free statistics books and software, scientific apps, and a survey portal. It is the largest library of research methods yet created. Everyone can use it for free.

We have just built a network of users. We have identified over 10,000 faculty members in medical schools in Africa and provided information about the program. Over 200 universities have put a “RMLA Button” on their site so that if one has a question about research methods, they click on the button and are whisked to the RMLA to find answers. We are also planning a top quality scientific journal that is peer reviewed, in the English Language, and of open access. It will also be one of the first “mentored” journals where the editors help authors with good ideas and data.

We are starting with health research, but will shortly expand to agriculture, climate, and computer engineering."

Research Methods Library of Alexandria to Boost Scientific Productivity in Africa. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280884374_Research_Methods_Library_of_Alexandria_to_Boost_Scientific_Productivity_in_Africa

Do you want to become a champion for strengthening scientific research publication in Africa and also become a foundation member of the RMLA ? Or do you desire more information for yourself or your institution?, It is simple. Just write to us and we will have you participate.

There are two requests that we ask in the beginning:

Go and examine the RMLA. http://ssc.bibalex.org/helpdesk/introduction.jsf

Distribute this information to all students and faculty you can reach, as we believe that not only researchers should know a little about research methods, but all students in higher education in Africa should have some grounding in at least basic research. For example in the US most people think that in Africa people are more likely to be killed by a lion than walking across the street!!

The 3 component which is not required at this point, is if for you and your University or Academic or Training Institution become a regional member of the RMLA.

This is free, and we ask that you put a Library of Alexandria link/button on your site

WE have given about 7-10 research methods training courses throughout the world which really benefit students. If we can establish a joint virtual program with the approaches above, we could discuss a regional program.

My colleague Dr Musa Kana and I would be presenting the RMLA at a special panel at this year’s Biovision 2016 Conference in Egypt coming April. BioVision Alexandria , as it is referred to , is an important gathering that brings together distinguished speakers and Nobel Laureates from the four corners of the globe through rich discussions that commemorate science and the finest achievements of the human intellect. We would also be giving a course on research methods at The Society for the Advancement of Science in Africa (SASA) meetings in Nairobi, August 2016.

You are welcome to be part of the Africa RMLA today.

Contact emails:
Africaglobalhealth AT gmail.com , Ronaldlaporte AT gmail.com
Dr. Francis O.Ohanyido

Remember this well:

"Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". (WHO)

"Health is a Right". (IPHF)

My source: HIFA

If there are any similar initiatives in the Middle East, Asia, South America, Oceania... please advise.

Saturday, January 30, 2016

Video: Concepts for Nursing Practice, Giddens

With an email seemingly lost I have registered and applied for a review copy of Gidden's Concepts for Nursing Practice. The 2e is published next month. I do hope for a positive response.

Gidden's approach, also proposed by others clearly has a great synergy with Hodges' model in concept-based learning and the learner's career. The most interesting aspect of this is to try to respond to the short-comings of a purely conceptual basis for curricula. I'm sure this is possible combining a pragmatic view of knowledge, an evaluation research design, threshold concepts and conceptual spaces with Hodges' model.

Giddens, J. (2013). Concepts for nursing practice. St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby/Elsevier.

Friday, January 29, 2016

Call for Special Issues - International Journal of Nursing Studies

The International Journal of Nursing Studies, nursing’s #1 ranked journal (2014 IF 2.9, 5 year IF 3.2), is requesting proposals for special issues.

IJNS provides a forum for original research and scholarship about health care delivery, organisation, management, workforce, policy and research methods relevant to nursing, midwifery and other health related professions. The IJNS aims to support evidence informed policy and practice by publishing research, systematic and other scholarly reviews, critical discussion, and commentary of the highest standard.

The journal particularly welcomes studies that aim to evaluate and understand complex health care interventions and health policies and which employ the most rigorous designs and methods appropriate for the research question of interest. The journal also seeks to advance the quality of research by publishing methodological papers introducing or elaborating on analytic techniques, measures, and research methods.

The journal has been publishing original peer-reviewed articles of interest to the international health care community since 1963, making it one of the longest standing repositories of scholarship in this field. The IJNS offers authors the benefits of:

  • A highly respected journal in its field with consistently high impact
  • Indexed in major databases: PubMed, Medline, Thomson Reuters - Science Citation Index, Scopus, Thomson Reuters - Social Science Citation Index, CINAHL and the BNI (British Nursing Index).
  • A truly global readership
  • Highly efficient editorial processes: average time from submission to first decision of 4 weeks
  • Rapid initial screening for suitability and editorial interest
  • Excellent peer reviewers drawn from a range of health service research disciplines
  • Early online publication as Article in Press - fully citable by your peers - on average 8 weeks after acceptance.
Individuals interested in submitting a special issue proposal should use the guidelines below to submit a letter of interest to Ian Norman (ian.j.norman AT kcl.ac.uk) and Peter Griffiths (peter.griffiths AT soton.ac.uk). Issues with systematic reviews are strongly encouraged.


We have introduced a procedure for proposing Special Issues, which involves writing a reasonably brief proposal structured under the following headings/issues. If you would be willing to do this we would be pleased to consider your proposal further. The headings are:

1. Proposed title of the Special Issue (SI).
2. Why you are the person to do this? Reputation in the field, key papers authored etc?
3. A paragraph about the topic which provides a rationale for the SI.
4. Reference to and brief outline of key papers from previous issues of the IJNS, and from other journals which illustrate the sort of material you would like to see in the SI.
5. Key authors in the field who you would invite a literature review/systematic review and/or an editorial.
- Special Issues of the IJNS comprise 14 – 16 papers, or which a minimum of four would normally be reviews.
6. Key networks, mailing lists etc. where the special issue could be publicised and the call for papers disseminated.
7. Possible co-guest editor(s), ideally (although not necessarily) based in another continent to you.

Allison Squires, PhD, RN, FAAN
Assistant Professor & Director of International Education, NYU College of Nursing
Research Assistant Professor, NYU School of Medicine
433 First Avenue
New York, NY 10010
Email: aps6 AT nyu.edu
Tel: 212-992-7074
Skype: allisonguera
Twitter: ASquiresPhDRN
Blog: http://nursementor.blogspot.com/
Webpage: http://nursing.nyu.edu/people/squires_allison
Associate Editor – International Journal of Nursing Studies
2014 Impact Factor 2.9, 5 year Impact factor 3.2!
# 1 Nursing Journal, Top 20 Health Services Research Journal

My source: GANM

Wednesday, January 27, 2016

Drupal 2016 Global Training Days

"Global Training Days is an initiative of the Drupal Association. We partner with companies and local community groups around the world who host introductory Drupal trainings. Each training day is its own workshop. As an attendee, you get helpful information for evaluating Drupal as a framework and as a career path. You also learn enough of the basics to leave a workshop having successfully built a Drupal site." ...

Please visit: 2016 Global Training Days

My source: Lizz Trudeau, Drupal Association

Monday, January 25, 2016

4th UK Health Literacy Conference

Health Literacy at the Deep End: Addressing Health Inequalities

Friday 18th March 2016

Golden Jubilee Conference Hotel (formerly The Beardmore Hotel and Conference Centre), Beardmore St, Clydebank, Glasgow, G81 4SA

We are delighted to confirm that our 4th UK conference will be opened by Maureen Watt, Minister for Public Health Scotland and chaired by Jo Protheroe, Chair of the Health Literacy Group UK, and Graham Kramer, National Clinical Lead for Self-Management and Health Literacy in Scotland.

They will be joined by high profile speakers from across the UK, sharing current thinking, research and practice in a series of parallel sessions and workshops. The Chief Medical Officer (CMO) for Scotland, Catherine Calderwood, will conclude what hopes to be a very exciting and productive day.

Click here for our conference programme

The day delegate rate for the conference is only £100 and includes tea, coffee and lunch. The pre-conference event is £10.

To reserve your place at this popular event, please complete the registration form and return it to s.weir AT keele.ac.uk by 28th February 2016.

Conference hashtag #ukhl2016

Sunday, January 24, 2016

Journal special issue 2014: Diagrammatic Reasoning

Diagrammatic Reasoning

Special issue of Pragmatics & Cognition 22:2 (2014)

Edited by Riccardo Fusaroli and Kristian Tylén
[Pragmatics & Cognition, 22:2]  2014.  v, 107 pp.

My source: Humanist Discussion Group, Vol. 29, No. 651.
W. McCarty.

Sensory overload: Pain-ting

humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic
Francis Bacon, Study for the nurse in the film “Battleship Potemkin”, 1957

Tate, Liverpool, 18 May - 18 September 2016 Francis Bacon: Invisible Rooms

Städel Museum. FRANCIS BACON

Zeki, S., & Ishizu, T. (2013). The “Visual Shock” of Francis Bacon: an essay in neuroesthetics. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 850. http://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00850

My source:
Pickford, J. (2016). In focus: Bacon's works come out of the shadows. FT Weekend. 23-24 January. p.2. http://on.ft.com/1ZTlgsC


Thursday, January 21, 2016

Sensory Deprivation

humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic

Sensory Deprivation Skull chair by Atelier Van Lieshout, 2007

My source:
Heathcote, E. (2016) What is good design? A look at the many definitions of quality, FT Weekend, House&Home, 16-17 January. p.1 and 13.


Wednesday, January 20, 2016

Doctoral student quest... (Delamont et al. 2000 - so true...!)

humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic

It is apparent that there is no single 
definition of the personal, intellectual quest on which doctoral students embark. Indeed we should not expect there to be one . . .

Scientific and academic knowledge 
does not rest on a purely mechanistic set of definitions and requirements. 
(Delamont et al. 2000: 51)

My source: Module 6 reading list.

Delamont, S., Atkinson, P. and Parry, O. (2000). The Doctoral Experience: Success and Failure in Graduate School. London: Falmer.

cited in:
Murray, R. (2003). How to Survive Your Viva : Defending a Thesis in an Oral Examination. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Monday, January 18, 2016

ERCIM News No. 104 Special Theme: "Tackling Big Data in the Life Sciences"

Dear ERCIM News Reader,

ERCIM News No. 104 has just been published at http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/en104

This issue features a special theme on "Tackling Big Data in the Life Sciences"
coordinated by the guest editors Roeland Merks (CWI) and Marie-France Sagot (Inria) and a section "research and society" about "Women in ICT Research and Education", coordinated by Lynda Hardman (CWI)

This issue is also available for download in pdf and EPUB.

Thank you for your interest in ERCIM News. Feel free to forward this message to others who might be interested.

Next issue: No. 105, April 2016 - Special Theme: "Planning and Logistics" (see Call for contributions)

Best regards,
Peter Kunz
ERCIM News central editor

ERCIM "Alain Bensoussan" Fellowship Programme
ERCIM offers fellowships for PhD holders from all over the world.
Next application deadline: 30 April 2015
is published quarterly by ERCIM, the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics.
The printed edition will reach about 6000 readers.
This email alert reaches more than 7500 subscribers.
ERCIM - the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics - aims to foster collaborative work within the European research community and to increase co-operation with European industry. Leading European research institutes are members of ERCIM. ERCIM is the European host of W3C.

Follow us on twitter @ercim_news
and join the open ERCIM LinkedIn Group http://www.linkedin.com/groups/ERCIM-81390

Friday, January 15, 2016

PIF Annual Conference for People Working in Health and Care Information and Support 2016

Do you care about high-quality, accessible health and care information and support?

If the answer is yes, then join us at the 2016 Annual Conference for People Working in Health and Care Information and Support, held by the Patient Information Forum (PiF), which will take place on Wednesday 25 May 2016 at the Royal College of Physicians, London. Click here to view the conference programme

Conference: The Power of Partnership
We are delighted that The Information Standard will be the Lead Sponsor for the event, and with our first Early Bird Discount ending on 1st February 2016 (offering a whopping 20% off delegate fees) this is the perfect time to book your place at this event.

Our 2016 conference theme is the ‘Power of Partnership’. Partnership working is about developing inclusive, mutually beneficial relationships across a range of sectors that improve the quality of health information and support, and the experience of care for patients and the public.

PIF’s diverse membership, and network, means that our Annual Conference attracts individuals from a range of organisations, from around the UK - including the NHS, voluntary, academic, freelance, pharmaceutical and commercial sectors. Attending the conference will provide you with a great opportunity to make connections and create, and discover, new partnerships to drive your work and projects forwards.

Thursday, January 14, 2016

Editorial: "Living dolls and nurses without empathy" mapped to Hodges' model

The example of Hodges' model displayed below is based upon selected concepts and themes taken from the following editorial:

Dean, S., Williams, C. and Balnaves, M. (2016), Living dolls and nurses without empathy. Journal of Advanced Nursing. doi: 10.1111/jan.12891

humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic


empathy - individual ability/quality

'the patient'

patient anxiety:
 emotional - psychological state

interpersonal skills

compassion - PURPOSE
individual values
hearing the person

artificial intelligence

(nurse-based observation skills)

simulation technology - 'living doll'

'the patient' in bed

(simulated) physiological data

cardiac event - crushing chest pain

voice-over technology

-TECHNICAL (machine)



communication skills

public perception




nursing programmes - education


cost of placements

professional values


Some further questions:
Where would you place holistic care?
Where does atomism lie?
In the above model where is situational awareness and how do we recognise an integrated approach?

My source: Trisha Greenhalgh

There is no endorsement intended with this post. 

Monday, January 11, 2016

[ganm] All Party Parliamentary Group on Global Health - Review of Nursing

Dear Colleagues,

We hope you've had a great start to the new year. The agreement of the Sustainable Development Goals last year means that there will be an even greater demand for health workers globally. This will put particular pressure on nurses and nursing - as you know nurses carry the biggest burden of care and treatment throughout the world.

There hasn't yet been a global review of nursing. The All-Party Parliamentary Group on Global Health is therefore undertaking a review of nursing globally with support from the Royal College of Nursing. It will look at how nursing needs to develop globally – addressing such issues as education, recruitment, retention, role definition and regulation – as well as considering, numbers of nurses, capacity and finances.

The APPG will not attempt to cover this enormous area in any detail but will aim to pick out the key strategic issues and to concentrate on what the UK can do to support the development of nursing and nurses globally. This follows on from the APPG’s recent mapping of The UK’s Contribution to Health Globally which identified the enormous scope that the UK has to help improve health globally.

As part of this review the APPG on Global Health is putting out a call internationally to gather written evidence of accounts, opinions and experiences to help inform the report.

In 500 words per question we would like to hear your views related to these questions:

  1. How does nursing need to develop globally in order to contribute most effectively to improving health globally and delivering Universal Health Coverage?
  2. What are the key issues that need to be addressed globally in order to enable nursing to develop in this way?
  3. What can the UK government and UK organisations do to help develop nursing and nurses globally?
  4. Any other comments or thoughts you may have related to the topic of the review.
Please submit your evidence in electronic form, ideally as a Microsoft Word document. Evidence should be clearly attributed with name, contact details, position and associated organisation if necessary. Please clearly state if you do not want the evidence to be accredited to you in the report. Submission need not cover all questions and written evidence not directly concerning questions will also be considered for the report. Please submit to rihaj AT parliament.uk by FRIDAY 12th FEBRUARY 2016.

Please feel free to circulate the call to other relevant contacts.

We thank you in advance for your time and contributions. Do not hesitate to contact me if you have any questions.

With best wishes,

Dr Johanna Riha
Policy Director | All Party Parliamentary Group on Global Health
Office of Lord Crisp | Fielden House | 13 Little College St | London, SW1P 3SH
Office: +44 (0) 207 219 3873 | Mobile: +44 (0) 7725879924
Email: rihaj AT parliament.uk
Website: http://www.appg-globalhealth.org.uk

Fernando Mena-Carrasco, BSN, MSW | Intern & Global Scholar
Center for Global Initiatives
PAHO/WHO Collaborating Center
Johns Hopkins School of Nursing
525 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205
fmenaca1 AT jhu.edu | nursing.jhu.edu | ganm.nursing.jhu.edu

The GANM is part of the Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing PAHO/WHO Collaborating Center.

Please visit the GANM webpage at: http://knowledge-gateway.org/ganm/

Saturday, January 09, 2016

Listening with Lines - Force lin-ear

humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic

"The line is a force whose activities are
comparable to those of all the
natural forces." 

Henry Van de Velde


Henry Van de Velde (Wikipedia)

Henry Van de Velde (.pl) (some broken links)
See - The nursing house Trzebiechów

Photo: Wikipedia "Trzebiechklatka" by No machine-readable author provided. Mohylek assumed (based on copyright claims). Licensed under Public Domain via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Trzebiechklatka.jpg#/media/File:Trzebiechklatka.jpg

Friday, January 08, 2016

Multiplistic- Thinking checks and balances [IV]

Johnson’s main source Perry (1970) is developmental in tracing a learner's journey from a dualist tendency, through to multiplistic and the third stage which is relativistic thinking. Having related dualistic thinking to Hodges' model, now it is the turn of the multiplistic.

Just as the axes of Hodges' model can be matched to dualistic thinking (followed by the domains), so the model's four care (or knowledge) domains immediately suggest multiple forms of explanation. Reasoning and reaching an understanding about something is what we usually think of as knowledge. The dualistic brought home the actuality of facts. The age of information technology provides a virtual ocean of facts, knowledge, data, information, wisdom. There is the buzz of the advertisers and social media and their influence on what we think and believe. Family, friends, community, culture all have their influence. We recognise the notion of common sense and tacit knowledge. When knowledge is viewed as content (and we avoid the key matter of access) this is a neutral position, but this neutrality changes irrevocably when context is introduced; when questions of ownership, disciplines and the knowledge of individual and community arise. Who knows? How is their knowledge demonstrated? Why should I/we listen to them? Staying with the political domain the further progression to relativistic thinking becomes apparent. There is the view of the doctor, nurse, social worker, allied health professional as an advocate who is not strictly independent and the representative who is.

As the term 'multiplistic' (and pluralistic) suggests the learner develops an appreciation that there is not necessarily a single answer but several. As Johnson (1994) notes, when an answer is provided, even if this is a voice of authority it is not necessarily correct. There is a distinction to be made between there being potentially many answers and many sources for answers.

The same properties attributed to knowledge objective and subjective (dualism in thought and action) also has a bearing here. From: The logic and evidence of a randomised controlled trial; To: the politics of dogma - “Well, this is the way we have always done it!” There are many types and degrees of quality attributed to knowledge. Debate is ongoing about the definition and meaning of bit, data, information, knowledge and wisdom. Is there a hierarchy there? Where would you put dualist and multiplistic thinking in this mix? Is that a valid question? No? Would you reconsider and proffer an answer if (and to follow) the wise amongst us are experts in relativistic thinking?

Bringing multiplistic thinking to a conclusion frequently and routinely demands a consensus being reached and teamwork. Multiplistic thinking and approaches (pluralism) also tends to throw light on constraints that dualistic views might ignore, or by definition have no need to take account of. So dualism can engender bias, even foster blatant prejudice, in comparison to the context of consensual management for example, which is invariably richer, open, continuous and requires self-awareness and awareness of the other. This is not a vote for consensus, to many it is a game and contention often remains.

Decision making as a process and the many ‘logics’ that people try to apply become evident and the varying quality of the same. Communities of practice have their own terminology. As a learner expands their vocabulary and acquires conceptual knowledge they are able to make the transition from novice, beginner ... to proficient learner (Benner, 1984). The aforementioned virtual realm can processes and produces terminologies of its own, so-called folksonomies. This is one of the multiplicities the learner must literally come to terms with. Hodges' model as a conceptual framework and one or more conceptual spaces is ideally suited to support this learning and learning to learn.

Johnson, D.D. (1994). Dualistic, Multiplistic, and Relativistic Thinking as it Relates to a Psychology Major. Honors Theses. Paper 202.

Perry, W. G. (1970). Forms of intellectual and ethical development in the college years. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Benner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley, pp. 13-34.

Thinking checks and balances [I]

Dualistic- thinking checks and balances [II]

Dualistic- thinking checks and balances [III] (or: The-hyphen)

See also:
Jones, P. (1996) Humans, Information, and Science, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 24(3),591-598.

Thursday, January 07, 2016

Dualistic- thinking checks and balances [III] (or: The-hyphen)

While dualistic thinking is positive as a means to explain Hodges' model, if a form of thinking (reasoning as ego-defence) is relied upon to excess and not balanced by other evidence then this can contribute to psychological problems. As Johnson (1994) also indicates, the three forms of thinking we are discussing in this series of posts are progressive. Compared to dualistic, Johnson states that multiplistic and relativistic thinking represent a more complex level. Appreciating that there are other sources for answers, possibly more than one answer and a need to relate things together.

Dualistic thinking epitomizes the categorical invitation that Hodges' model affords. In its most primitive form it has to be ready to hand and with the mind in an instant it is: the duality of fight or flight. A reflex arc circumvents the dualistic in an effort of instant reduction to survival.

Of course, the model is not intended to encourage thinking in extremes, polarised and absolutist. This property*, however, affirms the model's potential as a health promoting, educational and self-care resource.

There is another form of dualism that is given to us by life not model. It is the dichotomous variety that often influences and shapes attitudes to others, discourse and debate within our many cultures, politics and religious affairs.

The additional set of axes related to disciplines, for example, psych-social - referred to in the previous post [II] tempers the risks above in two ways:

  1. by virtue of the learner expanding their knowledge and hence the number of concepts they understand and in-form their community of practice.
  2. there is a space between the disciplines and concepts that might further support the structure, content and utility of Hodges' model.
The space lies in the '-', the hyphen, which can represent a middle ground (Assad, 1999). The axes of Hodges' model could be said to present a continuous hyphen. A cognitive pause (check): a token to collect as we reflect, especially if we cross disciplinary thresholds consciously or unconsciously. This can counter the aforementioned excesses of dualistic thinking with the addition of assessment and supervision.

I started these posts with what Hodges' model declares from the outset. This is the model's structure, the configuration of the axes the appearance of the (empty) quadrants. But as experience is gathered so the axes fade into the distance. They become grey and blue as in a background, a template we start to take for granted and work around, with and within. Content in the form of concepts and associated meaning can then populate the foreground that holds the promise of becoming increasingly more integrated which is stimulated by a shift from dualistic thinking to more pluralistic thought.

Assad, M.L. (1999). Reading with Michel Serres: An Encounter with Time. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Johnson, D.D. (1994) Dualistic, Multiplistic, and Relativistic Thinking as it Relates to a Psychology Major. Honors Theses. Paper 202.

*There are many tools that permit us to compare another duality: the binary. The presence or absence of phenomena, for example, a bone injury, or a new star, comet or asteroid.

See previous posts: Michel Serres

See also bibliography item:

Jones, P. (2008) Exploring Serres’ Atlas, Hodges’ Knowledge Domains and the Fusion of Informatics and Cultural Horizons, IN Kidd, T., Chen, I. (Eds.) Social Information Technology Connecting Society and Cultural Issues, Idea Group Publishing, Inc. Chap. 7, pp. 96-109.

Wednesday, January 06, 2016

Dualistic- thinking checks and balances [II]

Continuing from Thinking checks and balances [I] how can Hodges' model help us understand and provide ready access to three forms of thought: these being -

  1. Dualist
  2. Multiplistic
  3. and Relativistic thinking?
To recap, resort to dualist thinking might be a pathway to evidence for Hodges' model building the case for the model in education, healthcare theory, practice and policy making ... Taking each form of thinking in turn, dualist thinking in Hodges' model can be identified in six ways. Before discussing these, there are some general observations to make.

The axes provide an initial compass for differentiation.
The model is first situated (as per B.E. Hodges).
Situation precedes person but should not subvert the latter when the model is applied.
Upon arrival in any context it is what we draw in the sand.

The most obvious influence on thinking is in what the model gives to us through its structure - the two axes. Firstly, the individual - group axis can stand for the many variations of self and other: from patient - health care team; patient - family; citizen - civil society; person - friends (work colleagues); child - parents (or guardian - a status vested legally by others); clinical case - demographic (world) population. This might be considered a compound view, potentially incorporating scope and roles (as per the context).

Secondly, the individual aspect of the vertical axis also serves the reductive requirement of movement between many-one. Reductivism is a fundamental approach in scientific enquiry and quantitative research. There is in the above the reduction to the individual in the intra- interpersonal domain. Reductive descriptions and phenomena from the sciences can then be ascribed to the individual as per the conceptual content of the sciences domain.

The third factor is derived from the first and is evolutionary and developmental. It has a certain irony in also being a child's developmental milestone - the so-called 'terrible twos'. Whatever age an infant starts to assert their independence, establishing, coming to terms with their difference from the adult figures in their lives - this is a pivotal moment. As they set out to become them-selves, we can say that developmentally they, this nascent individual is drawn out of this particular axis. The axis is first of all then not dualist. The self is always a product of the group (even if the latter is absent). The individual, the self emerges from the other. This is an extended dynamic action, through our first 2-3 years. Self flows from otherness.

Illness, disease disruptions what should be the expected relation, crises whether of temperature or emotion places self-other in contention on a temporary or more permanent basis. The ‘health career’ in the full title of Hodges’ model is also pertinent, as this refers to life chances and the life course.

Perhaps, to borrow a term from genetics / chemistry the vertical axis represents a bivalent quality? The vertical axis has that telescopic property. The vertical axis is reflective the individual sees the group; the group sees the individual. Even as we contemplate the patient in person-centred care, what, who are we - the observers?

The fourth cognitive prompt utilises the model's horizontal axis which spans dualist thinking defined by the categories of humanistic and mechanistic. This can also be viewed as human - machine. This axis also gives an indication for the final, fourth type of dualistic thought. Since the 1960s this axis can also be described as the social - technical, or socio-technical (Baxter and Sommerville, 2011). The notion of machine logic then suggests objectivity and the contrast with subjective types of knowledge. This is a fundamental dualism that is debated by philosophers.

The fifth type a dualistic thinking could be described as replacing the axes above and inviting a free-for-all. Is this where creativity and innovation lie? Does this dualistic form open up conceptual probes and avenues to insight (association and relation)? There are a great many dualities, dichotomies, polarities that can (literally) be shot through the model. Through the centre, between adjacent care domains, within domains: consider, for example; demand-supply, mind-body, public sector-private sector-third sector and voluntary admission-sectioned.

Finally and sixth there is a translation, a progression from the axial duality to the epistemological background of the care domains. This can be constructed from the founding (root) disciplines of Hodges' model:
  • Psycho-Social
  • Psycho-Somatic
  • Physico-Political
  • Socio-Political
Superimposed on Hodges' model there is then another set of axes. This could be a means to explain Hodges' model. These trace out the domains of Hodges' model. Is this self-referential quality a coincidence or evidential towards making the case for Hodges' model? These axes act as either, or both a bridge and a brace. Since structure is all about geometry we can close at this point by noting that the strength of the triangle. In Hodges' model there are several diametrical dualities (oppositions), for example:

medicine - society*
individual - political involvement
a society's engagement in - the sciences
individual (demand) Political - health services (supply)
the individual who is mentally ill and the State, Mental Health Act legislation

As we see in this post in addressing dualities Hodges' model is concerned with DISCIP-LINES.

*Medicine and society represent a duality and an established discipline in medical sociology? Socio-technical is not a discipline in this sense and might provide a theoretical contrast - marker?

(The above and posts to follow are a work in progress and will form a larger - referenced - whole in terms of studies.)

Baxter, G. Sommerville, I. (2011) Socio-technical systems: From design methods to systems engineering. Interacting with Computers, 23 (1): 4-17 doi:10.1016/j.intcom.2010.07.003

Tuesday, January 05, 2016

Thinking checks and balances [I]

Following on from last month's -

Newton and Einstein had it right - Reflection in H2CM

- this is the first of several posts on learners, their career (and yours as a lifelong learner), reflection, thinking and researching Hodges' model.

In several papers on Hodges’ model and in numerous blog posts I’ve made many claims about the scope, versatility, potential utility and power of the model as a tool for reflection, assuring reflective practice, bridging the theory-practice gap, and supporting person centred and integrated care.

This is quite a claim, especially using words like scope, versatility, potential utility and power. Without evidence these words are not so much virtual as vapour – nebulous in terms of what they really mean.

What (I believe) Hodges’ model does provide simultaneously through its combined structure and care (knowledge) domains is ready cognitive access to three forms of thought:
  1. Dualist
  2. Multiplistic
  3. and Relativistic Thinking
Johnson and the sources cited describe a developmental pathway for learners through 1-3.

If I or other interested parties could demonstrate that Hodges’ model does encompass all three that would be progress.

As many previous posts reveal this trinity isn't the only idea to support the model. Amid the many ongoing questions is balance and clearly the conventional view of balance is not sufficient for learners in the 21st century.

Tomorrow some thoughts about dualistic thinking and Hodges' model.

Johnson, D.D. (1994) Dualistic, Multiplistic, and Relativistic Thinking as it Relates to a Psychology Major. Honors Theses. Paper 202. http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/uhp_theses/202/

Monday, January 04, 2016

Integrated Care Organisation [ICO]

humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic

integrated care organisation

integrated care organisation

integrated care organisation

Integrated Care Organisation

Why become an Integrated Care Organisation?

Sunday, January 03, 2016

Autonomy Cube(d)

OBSERVATION  ---------------------------------------  OBSERVATION

Trevor Paglen and Jacob Appelbaum, 
Autonomy Cube, 2015. 
Photo: Trevor Paglen

"When installed in a gallery, the cube creates an open Wifi hotspot that uses the alternative Tor network to anonymise internet use."
Jobey, L., (2016)  Trevor Paglen What Lies Beneath, FT Magazine, 2-3 January. p.20.

Trevor Paglen: Autonomy Cube (2014)

Whitechapel Gallery, London, January 29 to May 15.

Photo source: e-flux - Edith-Russ-Haus for Media Art

                             Autonomy-Advocacy Cubed?
     Late 1970s                      1980s-1990s                         2000s...
   Nurse Advocate                 Nurse as Advocate?             Independent Advocacy
             Ongoing nurse advocacy role amid the politics of healthcare...

Saturday, January 02, 2016

Open access healthcare information: Online resources

Dear HIFA members

Thank you very much to the additional suggestions for our list of open access resources. I have updated the list – and we have also decided to share it with successful applicants to the BMA Information Fund.

I thought that members might also find it helpful to see the list including the recent updates.

Best wishes to all for the holiday season


See http://roar.eprints.org [Registry of Open Access Repositories] for a full list of the 4000 such repositories of open access content in some 125 countries.

Bioline International There were over 11 million full text article downloads in 2015 up until the end of November.

The Directory of Open Access Journals also maintains a list of all ‘open access’ journals

Selected Health Information Resources is a comprehensive listing of books, training materials, journal articles and much more. It has been compiled by Jean G. Shaw, Honorary Research Officer at Partnerships in Health Information.

Free Books for Doctors

The International Network of Spinal Cord Injury Physiotherapists

e-learn Spinal Cord Injury

International Network of Spinal Cord Injury Nurses

People's Open Access Education Initiative:



Open Access Medical Books and Journals

Taylor and Francis open access journals

Academy Health

African Journals Online (open)


Free Medical Books

Free Medical Journals


London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Medical Student

TRIP database




HIFA profile: Martin Carroll is Deputy Head of the International Department, British Medical Association, London, UK. The BMA International Department runs a scheme called BMA/BMJ Information Fund, which provides educational materials for health organisations in low-income countries. Martin is also a member of the HIFA Steering Group. MCarroll AT bma.org.uk

My source: HIFA: Healthcare Information For All: www.hifa2015.org

HIFA Voices database: www.hifavoices.org

Friday, January 01, 2016

The Life Project, Helen Pearson

The Life Project Helen Pearson

"The remarkable story of a unique series of studies that have touched the lives of almost everyone in Britain today.

On 5th March 1946 a survey began that is, today, the longest-running study of human development in the world, and has grown to encompass six generations of children and over 70,000 people. They have become some of the best-studied people on the planet. The simple act of observing human life has changed the way we are born, schooled, parent and die, and irrevocably altered our understanding of inequality and health. This is the tale of these studies, the scientists who created and sustain them, the discoveries that have come from them. The envy of scientists around the world, they are one of Britain's best-kept secrets."

[Published: 3 March 2016]

(The Life Project? "What's yours?")