- learn about the conceptual framework Hodges' model. A tool that can help integrate HEALTH and SOCIAL CARE, INFORMATICS and EDUCATION. The model is situated, facilitates person-centredness, integrated - holistic care and reflective practice. A new site using Drupal is an ongoing aim - the creation of a reflective workbench. Email: h2cmng @ yahoo.co.uk Welcome

Monday, July 29, 2019

The number of pages count (in a medical MOT)

Received in the post: an invitation.

For a medical MOT that would cost me £129 - which is a saving of £141.

I am informed that a competitor charges £564 for a "360" Health Assessment and £424 for an "Essential" Health Assessment.

Recently I spoke to someone who had major surgery and they remarked on the lack of assessment not on the medical side, but the social, especially in relation to discharge and the circumstances they would be returning to.

This example of apparent disinterest in a social assessment contrasts with practice in the past - several decades ago.

Apart from an awareness of  'silver clouds' and rose-tinted glasses what struck me was securing a sale by a manifest of paper:


The various blood tests that would be completed are detailed using medical terminology across four A4 pages. Depending on age there is a free respiratory screening too.

The following quotations (Alber, et al., 2017) state clearly the risks:
"There is a growing awareness among clinicians and health care scientists, that medical overuse comprises unnecessary health care lacking benefit for patients [3] or putting them at risk of harm outweighing a potential benefit [4]. Moreover, unnecessary medicine adds to rising health care expenditures [5] and a misallocation of scarce resources [6]. Asymptomatic individuals are at risk of being labelled as patients, causing anxiety and affecting their quality of life [7]." ...

"Moreover, in secondary prevention, risk factors are increasingly treated as diseases [8]. There is a tendency to screen asymptomatic populations at low risk and to label pre-diseases as manifest diseases [1]. Serum cholesterol levels are a good example of threshold lowering by shifting the boundary between health and disease [9]."


Over-treatment is also a problem in two critical and concurrent senses, as follows:

Developed health
systems

Need to transform to
health promoting, educational, preventive,
self-caring systems.
Developing health
systems

Need to prevent the inheritance of commodified health care and over-treatment.*


Alber et al. also provide a useful diagram preceded with more background:
"In primary care, the “quaternary prevention concept” [] was introduced (see Fig. 1 ) in order to protect individuals from unnecessary investigations and treatment. Quaternary prevention is a “new term for an old concept: first, do not harm” []. It refers to actions “taken to identify [a] patient at risk of overmedicalisation [= in the sense of medical overuse, author’s note], to protect him from new medical invasion, and to suggest to him interventions, which are ethically acceptable” []."

Fig 1
The concept of quaternary prevention. Source: [] Kuehlein T, Sghedoni D, Visentin G, Gérvas J, Jamoulle M. Quaternary prevention: a task of the general practitioner. PrimaryCare. 2010;10:350–4, and [] Jamoulle M. Quaternary prevention, an answer of family doctors to overmedicalization. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2015;4:61–4

Without being dismissive of screening and its relation to health and well-being, I have removed myself from this particular mailing list.

At some point I must really apply Hodges' model to this discussion. The model is ideally suited to navigating and arguing this debate; from self-care, primary care, prevention, population and global health. I have posted previously about the damaging ideal of the comprehensive health record and the way that records seem oriented to assessment and risk reduction with outcomes and relapse prevention an after-thought. This defensiveness is critical for public safety, professionalism and accountability, but as a thread on twitter shows it can have a negative impact too.


*There is an additional confounding factor at work in developing nations, the incursion of digital technologies from outside.


Alber, K., Kuehlein, T., Schedlbauer, A., & Schaffer, S. (2017). Medical overuse and quaternary prevention in primary care - A qualitative study with general practitioners. BMC family practice, 18(1), 99. doi:10.1186/s12875-017-0667-4

Tsoi, G.W.W. (2014). Update On Prevention - An Introduction to Quaternary Prevention, Medical Bulletin 19, 11, NOVEMBER 2014.

Ack.
I am subscribed to a mail list that is an invaluable resource on the status of medicine and health care, with contributors including, Mohammad Zakaria Pezeshki, Juan Gérvas, Karenleigh A. Overmann, Gene Tsoi and others.

MOT: Ministry of Transport test