Hodges' Model: Welcome to the QUAD

- provides a space devoted to the conceptual framework known as Hodges' model. Read about this resource for HEALTH, SOCIAL CARE, INFORMATICS and EDUCATION. The model can facilitate PERSON-CENTREDNESS, CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, HOLISTIC CARE and REFLECTION. Follow the development of a new website using Drupal as I finalise my research question with part 2 starting in 2016. See our bibliography, posts since 2006 and please get in touch [@h2cm]. Welcome.

Tuesday, June 21, 2016

Paper: Implications of health as ‘the ability to adapt and self-manage’ for public health policy: a qualitative study


Results 
Key themes emerging 
Overall, participants supported the new concept of health. Four key patterns emerged regarding implications for public health: (i) health as an individual asset, (ii) health as a healthy lifestyle, (iii) health as focus of the healthcare system and (iv) health in the context of social support. p.413.

individual
|
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
|
group
(i) health as an individual asset
(ii) health as a healthy lifestyle


(iv) health in the context of social support

(iii) health as focus of the healthcare system


Jambroes, M., Nederland, T., Kaljouw, M., Van Vliet, K., Essink-Bot, M., &. Ruwaard, D. (2016). Implications of health as ‘the ability to adapt and self-manage’ for public health policy: A qualitative study. The European Journal of Public Health, 26(3), 412-416. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckv206

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Sunday, June 19, 2016

Controlling the deluge: data, information, knowledge

"The longueil and the traversier, these are the names of the two cables that, wound on four winches called the papillonnage, tied our dredger, right and left, to the shores of Garonne. For seen from a plane, the four steel cables, the first two of which, in front, opposed the current while the two at the stern stabilized the pontoon, must have formed the edges of a transparent butterfly covering the width of the river with its spread wings." pp.11-12.

Serres, M. (2012). Biogea. Minneapolis: Univocal Publications.

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Saturday, June 18, 2016

Hodges' model: Axes as contextual thresholds

There is something intuitively commonsensical about Threshold Concepts within education and learning. Life is all about thresholds. Thresholds are a fact of life and death. They are the bread and butter of healthcare: a matter of life and death.

What is the threshold for a referral? 
What are the thresholds within diagnostic tests? 
What is the threshold for rehabilitation, staying well?

As a key component of human thought, however defined, concepts abound within and without educational contexts.

Hodges' model is like a threshold, several in fact. A drawstring, not just one but four. A net in which to capture a haul of concepts, situated to the task at hand. So many can fall away.

DO NOT! underestimate these strings. These lines.
They can partition and conjoin. They can guide and blind. They can stifle, block, iso-late, restrain, constrain.

THIS WAY! multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary inviting translation to transdisciplinary. Change. Learner's transformed.

We are excused the need to simultaneously attend to four nets since the model provides them in one cast.

One cast one throw + for one and all players


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Friday, June 17, 2016

Children's Mental Health Policy 'Black Hole', Humanitarian 'Corridor' or 'Terrorist Tunnel' ...?

you decide...

individual
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INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
|
group








Additional link c/o @ShaunLintern (HSJ) via @MHNAUK

Department of Health to scrap nursing advisory team as part of cost cutting drive:
http://www.hsj.co.uk/topics/workforce/dh-to-scrap-nursing-advisory-team/7005507.fullarticle#.V1rhoPHnIg0.twitter

Drawing source: (Pinterest) Acknowledgement - Anish Kapoor

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Thursday, June 16, 2016

Threshold Concepts: Pre-conference Health and Social Care

Yesterday afternoon there was a video-linked workshop between Glasgow, Halifax, Nova Scotia - Dalhousie University and an interest group member in Plymouth. This was to try to further thinking on threshold concepts in healthcare and one of two pre-conference workshops at:

6TH BIENNIAL THRESHOLD CONCEPTS CONFERENCE


Our agenda:

Workshop: To disaggregate or not? The dilemma of complex threshold concepts
  • What do we mean by complex thresholds?
  • Is this particularly relevant to healthcare and if so how?
  • Can we identify some examples in health and social care?
  • What problems do complex thresholds bring for teachers, learners, the curriculum?
  • Is disaggregation helpful (and how) or unhelpful/reductionist/simplification?
  • Do we have any evidence or theories that can help us?
We did not cover all the points in depth, but in respect of the first point I could define 'complex thresholds' with recourse to Hodges' model. The paper I'm working on includes a table that alludes to this. I could take this question more literally in that draft.

Thinking about complexity and aggregation, by complex is this the same as compound? Compound suggests something that can be taken apart (it is composite), but complex involves the whole (domain-based?) situation / context?

The example I have in mind is learner's recognition, appreciation and understanding of:
  • mental capacity
  • best interest
  • deprivation of liberty
By learner's I am thinking of student nurses (plus other disciplines), healthcare assistants and future associate practitioners. In the era of lifelong learners, public engagement and patient involvement/engagement I have include others (despite the academic demands for specificity).

Philosophy Now 113
On the last question - Do we have any evidence or theories that can help us? - I still feel evidence can be found in Hodges' model. As ever: data, data, data!

Feelings are never enough (until they are all we are left with).

Discussion included the curriculum as the questions indicate, and again one of the original purposes for the model was in curriculum development. but in addition the position and role of the 'big picture'.

Issue 113 of Philosophy Now featured New Realism. I'm cherry picking from pragmatism, idealism and realism. New realism questions whether a unified picture (in philosophy) is available (p.7). While this is a damaging critique to Hodges' model, it might also be an opportunity.

Steinbauer, A. (2016). Interview: Markus Gabriel, Philosophy Now, Apr/May, 113; pp.6-10.

#thresholds16

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Attitude - attitude

individual
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INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
|
group
Attitude







Image source: The Guardian

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Friday, June 10, 2016

FROM: Worry TO: Funding & Policy (What lies in-between?)

individual
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INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
|
group
real WORRY
BBC Inside Science
Fighting Antimicrobial Resistance


BBC In Our Time
Penicillin

POLICY - FUNDING

Acknowledgement:
BBC Radio 4

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Tuesday, June 07, 2016

Meaning machines - existence (c/o BBC Radio 4)

individual
|
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
|
group
Self's
Search for Meaning
BBC Radio 4

purpose
thought - belief - reason
faith
Why?
meaning

What, When, Where

sciences




machines

FAITH

FAITH

Self-care - Self-efficacy
relies on a litany of literacies
How they are realized is another question....

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Sunday, June 05, 2016

Saturday, June 04, 2016

'Boxing' I

individual
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INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
|
group
1
2

3
Ali (c) Library of Congress

Additional links;
Workplace experiences of BME and white staff published for every NHS trust across England

Briefing for NHS Boards on the NHS: Workforce Race Equality NHS workforce race equality delivers better care, outcomes and performance, NHS England 

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"eLearning for undergraduate health professional education - a systematic review informing a radical transformation of health workforce development"

"Designing for learning is a complex task which requires a holistic approach. According to Mayes and de Freitas (24), the implementation of blended learning should consider learning at three different levels: as behaviour, as construction of knowledge, and as a social practice.

The behaviourist learning theory (25,26) suggests that we learn by receiving a stimulus that consequently produces a response. It therefore concentrates on low-level cognitive tasks or psychomotor skill learning (27). ... According to Horton (28), drill-and-practice activities are useful when learners need to learn automated procedures that must be performed and applied without much conscious thought as part of higher-level activities (28). 
eLearning for undergraduate
health professional education

In contrast to the behaviourists’ approach, the cognitivists focus their attention on how students gain and organize their knowledge (27). Piaget (29) and his constructionism theory of knowledge has been particularly influential with his assumption that conceptual understanding can be reached through intellectual activity rather than by merely absorbing information. The cognitive perspective emphasizes the process of reaching “understanding” through an active process of creating hypothesis, application of knowledge and reflection (30)." (p.97)


Imperial College London, World Health Organization (2015). eLearning for undergraduate health professional education - a systematic review informing a radical transformation of health workforce development. Al-Shorbaji, N., Atun, R., Car, J., Majeed, A., & Wheeler, E. (eds.).

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Tuesday, May 31, 2016

Individual - Group : Concepts in Conflict? What does 'genocide' mean?

** individual **
|
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
|
** group **

CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY










GENOCIDE

My source:
BBC Radio 4 Law in Action - Crimes Against Humanity, 31 May 2016
(Available for download at time of writing)

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WHO - IntegratedCare4People web platform

Dear All,

During the Sixty-ninth World Health Assembly, WHO Member States officially discussed the Framework on integrated people-centred health services and its draft resolution.

http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA69/A69_39-en.pdf 

During a high-level side event at the Assembly, on Friday 27 May 2016, WHO and its Collaborating Centre, the Andalusian School for Public Health, officially launched the IntegratedCare4People web platform. http://www.integratedcare4people.org/

This platform brings together knowledge, information and a global network of people and organizations working towards the goal of integrated people-centred health services for all. Information is organized in a repository of resources, communities of practice and a practices database where technical insights and the operational know-how of health service delivery transformations are shared. The web platform for IntegratedCare4People is a collaborative platform and you are all very welcome to share your resources, your practices and to participate in the communities of practice.

We look forward to collaborating in building a truly global virtual network for change towards integrated people-centred health services.

All my best regards.

Mrs Isabelle Wachsmuth (MSc, MPH)
Project manager
Health Innovation & System (HIS)
Service Delivery & Safety (SDS)
Moderator of Global Francophone Forum - Health Information For All (HIFA-Fr)

World Health Organization
Avenue appia 20 CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
-------------------------------------------------------------
My source:
HIFA: Healthcare Information For All: www.hifa2015.org

HIFA Voices database: www.hifavoices.org

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Monday, May 30, 2016

Secret diaries - span the generations...

http://www.meulenhoffboekerij.nl/nl/p5500047bb492e/hendrik-groen.html

Dutch Bestseller, 'The Secret Diary of Hendrik Groen'


Hodges' model can span the generations through 'life chances' and the 'health career'...


Book cover image: Publishers Weekly

My source: Paxman, J. (2016) Diary, FT Weekend, Life & Arts, 28-29 May. p.2.

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Sunday, May 29, 2016

Networked Learning Conference 2016 leads to Barcelona which means...?

After the ICIC 2016 in Barcelona this past week I'm still reflecting on Lancaster and the Network Learning Conference. It has been a busy month. I'll write about Barcelona (again) soon, but with the ICIC presentation done (thanks to all 30+ who attended the session and engaged afterwards) I can catch up a little. Despite the stress this implies this is all positive as the challenge lies in the opportunities and tensions between nursing-healthcare, education and technology.

In Lancaster, Fran Tracy (Liverpool John Moores University) and Jesper Jensen (University of Southern Denmark) held a symposium - Designs for learning with the Semantic Web. Three papers were presented followed by discussion on:

1) the emergent nature of semantic web technologies, 2) how participatory research practices like DBR are affected during the development of semantic web technologies and 3) how both of these concepts may find a new place as we move forward into increasingly complex and changeable educational environments.
By means of introduction there were several useful pointers and reminders, including Stahl with a definition of emergence and a definition of design based learning (DBR). It was the combination of semantic web, DBR and networked learning which made this an immediate must-go-to session for me. My research proposal is seeking to combine these aspects plus situated learning.

I probably won't be following DBR by-the-letter(s) as defined by some advocates. My application will to some extent be emergent. There will, as I envisage it, be several invitations for users to contribute to DBR but being asynchronous this needs to be factored in. All learners - users could contribute to successive iterations, but this is unlikely and once the numbers get beyond 10-15 it would become complex and difficult to make a sense of. Poll-based reconciliation might work? As per #2 above my plan would be that a number of subjects (web users) would provide views on their experience with the model and the future site. So it is DBR on a scale that befits a small-scale evaluation study. Tracey also mentioned Wang and Hannafin (2005) and their definition of DBR:
a systematic but flexible methodology aimed to improve educational practices through iterative analysis, design, development, and implementation, based on collaboration among researchers and practitioners in real-world settings, and leading to contextually-sensitive design principles and theories. (p. 7)
The context sensitive is were I see a role for situated learning. There are a couple of hierarchies that result. Situated learning brings in the community (- of practice), but Hodges' is firstly about the student, the care situation and their learning with the model, reflection and developing reflective practice. There are few examples of technology mediated group reflection, but the technical challenges of the group form make the individual starting point more realistic?

Simonson also cites the above and notes how DBR is pragmatic. My approach is pragmatic (that's why it's taking so long).

In Hodges' model I've written before how the interpersonal care domain, combines the INTRA (an individual's metacognition - their thinking about thinking) and the INTERpersonal (how they relate to the other). The NL conference and this past week at #ICIC2016 have helped me realise that this project may also possess this property*. As an intraproject and interproject (?) subjects (students) may engage at any of the following levels:
  • Not engage in design questions at all / Read the intro materials on Hodges' model
  • Read the intro materials / use the site for their case study purposes
Drupal can (I believe and have seen demonstrated) provide a great deal of web analytics from logs and reports. There is the prospect of taking this further using web analytics to inform the specific site locations subjects have visited. (For Hodges' model visual tracking would be an excellent measure but that is beyond me). There is a potential escalator of sorts here:
  • Use the site for their case study purposes / comment on the usability of h2cm and the site
  • Comment on the usability of h2cm and the site / See their web analytics data and my conclusions about this 
  • See their web analytics data and my (other student's!) conclusions about this / Use their experience, knowledge and this feedback to respond to design questions
These design questions would then socio-technically span their nursing care learning and TEL. The project as a whole represents at its core the intra, its about the student's reflection and being reflexive. It could be that the project can progress to group and community. As posted previously I have highlighted the functionality of Drupal with respect to the semantic web. I mentioned Drupal in the discussion. The conceptual (and semantic) dimension that can be found within Hodges' model, the curriculum, the learner's vocabulary and development might facilitate that transition from individual to group? Since 2008 I've followed the development of RDF, semantic web in Drupal and the longevity of contributed modules and Drupal projects that have used them. Framing these observations with an emergent lens is fascinating in terms of the challenges, opportunities and tensions in nurse education, TEL and furthering Hodges' model.

I added the asterisk above as what follows from that point seems a long winded description of what is basically an experiment, with the attendant risks... I need to forget about the INTER and concentrate on the INTRA and yet both clamour for attention. Whatever follows must deliver something tangible for subjects# to mitigate the risk and translate experiment into (some resemblance of) workflow? It can't be quod cum fit, however long 'after' may be...

(The terms intra-project and inter-project are not novel, see for example: http://eprints.qut.edu.au/31946/ )

The symposium paper

Simonson, M. (2006). DESIGN-BASED RESEARCH Applications for Distance Education. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 7(1), pp. vii–viii.

Wang, F. & Hannafin, M. (2005). Design-based research and technology-enhanced learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 5-23.

# students, subjects, users - all these terms may be applicable.

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Wednesday, May 18, 2016

Hodges' model - draft paper on case formulation informed by Rainforth and Laurenson (2014)

The following is from a literature review by Rainforth, M., & Laurenson, M. (2014) for a draft paper on Hodges' model and case formulation [CF]. They do not refer to diagrams, but two models are included and the role of modelling. The paper is supportive for Hodges' model within mental health, forensic care and supervision more generally.

Crowe et al. (2008) suggest an advantage of CF is its ability to create understanding of service user needs regardless of their diagnostic classification. Thus an emphasis on the link between training provision, training outcomes and treatment plans is needed so practitioners understand the frameworks for conceptualizing mental distress whilst also being able to recognize the expertise of the service user in CF development.
...
A goal of the person-specific evaluation of CF is the development of an intra-individual statistical prediction model for actuarial prediction tailored to the specific issues and life circumstances. The essence of CF is its ability to provide shared understanding of a person’s presenting problems through theoretical explanation of assumed causes and maintaining factors, so appropriate interventions can be utilized (p.208).

Rainforth, M., & Laurenson, M. (2014). A literature review of Case Formulation to inform Mental Health practice: Case formulation in mental health practice. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 21(3), 206–213. http://doi.org/10.1111/jpm.12069

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Tuesday, May 17, 2016

C E L L

individual
|
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
|
group

CELL-SHOW

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Monday, May 16, 2016

Information? Let me introduce you to Empathy! (New Scientist #3073)

This week's New Scientist asks the question: "What is Information?". Its neighbouring article is on empathy. I've bought a copy to add to my small library on 'information' (and its analogue?).

individual
|
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ---------------------------------------  mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
|
group
"I feel your pain." 
pp.32-35.

New Scientist: What Is Information? pp.28-31.






Battersby, S. (2016) The unseen agent. New Scientist, 230: 3073, 14 May, pp.28-31.

Young, E. (2016) I feel your pain. New Scientist, 230: 3073, 14 May, pp.32-35.

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Thursday, May 12, 2016

"Luke, you switched off your targetting computer on International Nurses Day. What's wrong?"


I suggested the number blog posts would slow years ago and yet they've kept coming and there's a bank of drafts sitting in the backend. Whether the quality reflects that location I'm not sure, but hopefully there's more to me than putting content together.

By definition person centred care (student centred...) demands targetting AND measurement of some sort: attitudinal, evidenced, cognitive, engagement, choice, policy, outcomes...

Since April 2006 this blog has served as a personal targetting computer of sorts.

I've a few posts to follow on the Networked Learning Conference (another great community and Croatia 2018 next!), but things will slow here as Drupal beckons plus writing for papers and conferences.

ICN 2016 - NURSES: A FORCE FOR CHANGE: IMPROVING HEALTH SYSTEMS' RESILIENCE


Image source:
https://imgflip.com/

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