Hodges' Model: Welcome to the QUAD

- provides a space devoted to the conceptual framework known as Hodges' model. A potential resource within HEALTH, SOCIAL CARE, INFORMATICS and EDUCATION the model incorporates two axes: individual-group and humanistic-group with four care (knowledge) domains - Sciences, Interpersonal, Political and Social. Follow the development of a new website using Drupal as I commence post graduate distance-learning studies in January 2014. See our bibliography, archive and please do get in touch. Welcome.

Monday, November 24, 2014

Big Hero 6 - clip (Healthcare is never 'Frozen')

individual
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ------------------------------------------- mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
group











My source:
Educate the Young - Disney and Pixar Understand Patient-Centered Care

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House of Care model

... the House of Care model - a coordinated, patient centred system, in which patients and carers work with healthcare staff, supported by organisations, to optimise their care. HSJ (2014)

individual
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ------------------------------------------- mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
group

Patients

Healthcare staff

Carers


Organisations


NHS England: House of care

King's Fund: House of care


My source: 
Trueland, J. (2014) How to tackle the workforce planning issue, Health Service Journal. 124, 6418: pp.16-21.

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Sunday, November 23, 2014

Antipsychotics & Dementia: Managing medications (across Hodges' model)

individual
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ------------------------------------------- mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
group
person-centered care, communication

diagnosis
medication management
assessment - review
premature deaths, stroke
side-effects
observation
Anti-psychotics:
Traditional - 1st generation
Atypical - 2nd generation
de-prescribing
pain, analgesia, 
research
anti-depressant
cholinesterase inhibitors
titration
trial reduction
avoid benzodiazepines if possible
Team working, collaborative care, family
nursing homes
challenging behaviours -
shouting, aggression, psychosis, agitation
Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)
psychosocial interventions, reassuring staff, knowledge and skills
Policy, Reports, Governance, Audit, Consent, Capacity, Consultation, Multi-disciplinary approach, institutions, choice

My source: AlzheimersAustralia via twitter

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Friday, November 21, 2014

Launching PoliCulturaEXPOMilano 2015

http://www.policulturaexpo.it/world/

We are happy to announce you that we are now  launching PoliCulturaEXPOMilano2015, the world competition on DST: www.policulturaexpo.it/world

All the activities for the schools will start in the second semester (school year 2014-15) for the Northern Hemisphere and in the first semester (school year 2015-16) for the Southern Hemisphere.

Now we have a BIG CHALLENGE : recruiting schools and teachers. There are three big motivations that can attract teachers:
  • issues are really of planetary relevance (and very good for pedagogy)
  • this is a world education experience: world communities of teachers, world-shared resources, world-shared content…
  • there is high visibility of the output (in the initiative website, at the universal exposition’s premises…)
We try to help with 300 pages of reading material (created on purpose), 3 MOOCs (on Digital storytelling, on the Expo2015’s topics and on how to create a narrative on the EXPO theme) and more than 1,000 educational “tips” on activities revolving around the exposition’s themes.

You can help us in 3 ways:
  1. forwarding the attached kit to teachers, associations, principals, district, school authorities, parents, friends and whomever you think may be of help
  2. putting us in contact with these people
  3. pointing at websites or blogs that may cooperate with us (i.e. that are read by teachers in your country or worldwide)
We have an ambitious target of 1,000 narratives, and we are fighting for it.

You can find additional information in the attached kit and/or in the website. You did not do it yet, please send us your selfie for support (look at our homepage).

Certain that we may count on your support, I remain sincerely yours

Nicoletta

PS  please include in your reply the address policulturaexpo-world at polimi.it

Nicoletta Di Blas
HOC-LAB
Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering
Politecnico di Milano
Via Ponzio 34/5 - 20133 Milano
http://hoc.elet.polimi.it/ nicoletta.diblas at polimi.it

Michael K. Barbour, Ph.D.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Director of Doctoral Studies, Isabelle Farrington College of Education
Assistant Professor, Educational Leadership
Sacred Heart University
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
mkbarbour-at-gmail-dot-com - http://www.michaelbarbour.com
Virtual School Meanderings - http://virtualschooling.wordpress.com
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
My source: ITFORUM mailing list
ITFORUM at listserv.lt.unt.edu
http://listserv.lt.unt.edu/mailman/listinfo/
http://listserv.lt.unt.edu/
This is a listserv of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. The focus of this list is instructional and educational technology topics ranging from technology integration through cognitive systems thinking and beyond.

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Monday, November 17, 2014

Response to: Pros and cons of pulling behavioral and social data into EHRs [Government Health IT]

Mike Miliard Editor of Healthcare IT News posted an item:

Pros and cons of pulling behavioral and social data into EHRs

To put my reply in context here is the start of Mike's post:
Should more types of health data figure into electronic health records?

On the one hand, the Institute of Medicine put out a call for doing just that on the grounds that behavioral and social data can benefit population health practices to ultimately improve the care of individual patients. For physicians who already complain that EHRs are burdensome and distract from care delivery, on the other hand, the idea of making electronic records more complex, perhaps even cluttered, will inevitably be unwelcome news. ...

Talk about a work in progress? How long does it take to get this right? Of course health and social care data is always ongoing, as governments change, policy, medicine, local government, social care, technology and society too.

As Mike notes for many physicians the EHR is already burdensome. My context is quite different being nursing, mental health, and crisis-oriented in the community. I've defined small research-based datasets in the past and it is a fascinating pursuit. Trying to have the data defined and reporting ready before the 'door opens'. Doing this retrospectively is no fun at all.

At work when I visit someone in a residential care or nursing home, do I record this as 'home', or 'community' in the absence of the aforementioned categories? Is this ageism?

Is there a digital dividend to come to the physician's aid? Surely increasingly the physical measurements and observations in medicine, surgical... can be automatically captured, disseminated and presented accordingly? Surely, it is possible today to bring in other data as the context changes? If we can autofill on words, we should be able to auto-fill the dataset as context shifts? There are many algorithms out there already 'alive and countin-the-clickin'  in the millisecond

http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2014/EHRdomains2.aspx
IoM report
It seems Mr Miliard is writing about one way to define 'integrated care'?

It isn't just 'public health' though;
it must combine, be inclusive of - 'public mental health'.

The focus of the article is the Institute of Medicine's report:

Capturing Social and Behavioral Domains and Measures in Electronic Health Records: Phase 2


Mike lists eight domains from the report and these are mapped to Hodges' model below:

individual
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ------------------------------------------- mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
group
educational attainment, stress, depression
physical activity, stress
 

social isolation, intimate partner violence (for women of reproductive age)

financial resource strain,
neighborhood median household income

I've included stress twice as there are at least two forms: anxiety - internal; and environmental - external.

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Sunday, November 16, 2014

Woman says goodbye to beloved horse from hospital bed hours before she dies

individual
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ------------------------------------------- mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
group

Sheila Marsh is reunited with her horse Bronwen one last time.
Photograph: Andrew Foster/Twitter






The Guardian:
Woman says goodbye to beloved horse from hospital bed hours before she dies

Image source:
http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/nov/07/sheila-marsh-horse-reunion-goodbye-hours-before-she-dies

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Saturday, November 15, 2014

Report: Personalised Health and Care 2020 - National Information Board

individual
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ------------------------------------------- mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
group

self-help, self-care, person-centredness, personalised care

task-centredness, administration, time, processes, events, data capture

Patients told to go online in radical NHS reform


Government withholds 35m nursing technology fund



Report: Personalised Health and Care 2020. National Information Board. November 2014.

Sources:

The Times, Patients told to go online in radical NHS reform. 13 November 2014. London. p.1.

The Nursing Times, Government withholds 35m nursing technology fund. 12 November 2014. p.2.

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Thursday, November 06, 2014

'Voronoi treemap' by Michael Balzer, (2005)


http://www.brainpickings.org/2014/07/17/the-book-of-trees-manuel-lima/
'Voronoi treemap' by Michael Balzer, (2005)


Images courtesy of Princeton Architectural Press via Brain Pickings

The Book of Trees - on a table in Waterstones, Manchester this evening.

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Monday, November 03, 2014

Learning model for International Health - progress since 2005?

In the third module of my technology enhanced learning studies I have been reading:

Henry, B., & Ueda, R. (2005). Learning model and curriculum designs for international health in nursing. Japan Journal of Nursing Science, 2(1), 17-24.

The aim of the paper is:

Nursing’s domain of inquiry for international health is unclear. A learning model to frame this specialty is unavailable. The goal of this analysis was to open debate worldwide on the nature of concepts, relationships, and analytic constructs that can serve as a foundational blueprint for international nursing curriculums. The aim was to define and operationalize international health in nursing by constructing a learning model.
The results included the identification of five main concepts:

 environment, demography, culture, technology, and research.

individual
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ------------------------------------------- mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
group

environment, technology, demographics
culture

Using Hodges' model above I have mapped these concepts to the model's domains. The influence of context looms large of course, so we can also for example consider the sociological aspects of the environment and the politics of the environment which is currently newsworthy on a global scale.

I've placed the concepts in the primary domain. We can extend them in many ways. Diagonally, technology can be extended to what is (should be?) socio-technical. Usability brings in the interpersonal domain and subjective experience. Funding and access politicizes many concepts and no-less here.

I'm being deliberately contrary with research. Usually I'd split research between the sciences and sociology. My doing so equates to the dated, but still significant distinction between quantitative and qualitative forms of research respectively. Basically this means that using Hodges' model we can replace the humanistic (subjective) and mechanistic (objective) labels above with 'research'.

We can take 'environment' and be person centered looking at the individual experience. We can do the same but for a group, or population.

As I investigate culture, nursing, Hodges' model and educational technology I do wonder what progress has been made since 2005: where these concepts sit within the care domains (and why), and what about the gaps? Back to the literature...!

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Sunday, November 02, 2014

Sohei Nishino - Dioramas: Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, Hiroshima, Shanghai, London ... Jerusalem

individual
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ------------------------------------------- mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
group
Jerusalem © Sohei Nishino

Jerusalem 2012-13
Nishino's maps aren't supposed to be geographically accurate. "It is simply the town seen through the eyes of a single individual," he says, "a trace of the way I walked through it." He uses a film camera and develops the images himself before painstakingly cutting and assembling them into a collage.

The Sunday Times, Magazine, p.50-51. 19 October 2014.

[politics of (some) places] pj



Michael Hoppen Gallery (30 October - January 7)

My source: Scenes from the cutting room floor, 19 October 2014, Spectrum, The Sunday Times, 49-52.
Image - Jerusalem, source:
http://www.michaelhoppengallery.com/artist,show,3,161,485,2753,0,0,0,0,michael_hoppen_contemporary.htmlJerusalem

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Saturday, November 01, 2014

Ebola: impact across the care domains

individual
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ------------------------------------------- mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
group

grief, mental trauma, stress

ChildFund International opens first Interim Care Center for children orphaned by Ebola
Dear Friends,
Ebola is  frightening.  Most information from TV, Facebook, and from our governments is poor. We want to change this by providing to you the best possible scientific information  about Ebola from leading scientists from Nigeria, Africa, the Library of Alexandria and experts world wide.

We have created a cutting edge lecture on Ebola for you to teach your students, share with your faculty and distribute to your friends. The Lecture has been translated by 20 scientific experts  into  Arabic, Chinese, English, Farsi, French, Hebrew, Japanese, Malay, Pashtu, Russian, Spanish and Urdu. It present the best possible scientific knowledge about this disease.

http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec52511/index.htm

...
We provide this to you as a “gift that is meant to be given”. Please share this with your students and faculty, and post the lecture on Facebook, tell others about  it through Twitter, etc.  The Library of Alexandria Lecture is free, developed by the global scientific community. Include links to this from Universities, Libraries, schools media, etc.

Let us continue to learn and share the scientific facts about Ebola.

Drs. Elegba, Kana, Bello-Manga and Adiri
Faculty of Medicine
Kaduna State University, Nigeria
Ismail Serageldin, Ph.D., Director Library of Alexandria
Ronald LaPorte, Ph.D. Director Emeritus WHO Collaborating Centre, Pittsburgh


Additional links:

Understanding the Ebola Virus and How You Can Avoid It

The Economist: Ebola and big data - Waiting on hold

Ebola Response Anthropology Platform

Ebola Resources

Ebola Deeply

Ebola, David Quammen, Bodley Head

Sources:
HIFA2015
forum@justnetcoalition.org and ciresearchers@vancouvercommunity.net
Washington Post - Ebola virus image

*my emphasis

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Friday, October 31, 2014

Metamorphosis (Ste p e-learning [curve?] )

I'm walking over ground of a gradually steepening pitch. At a certain point, I pause and start using my hands; the real mountain begins. I am climbing. Do I, as soon as my back slopes forward, return to the state of the quadruped? Almost: my body transforms; feet become hands and my two manual grips secure balance. Homo erectus, the standing man, of recent date, reverts back to the one from whom he is descended: the archaic quadrumane. This thunderbolt recollection became so black, in me, that I no longer fear to speak of the beast; I remember who we were (p.3).
Michel Serres (1999) Variations on the Body, Univocal.

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Thursday, October 30, 2014

Health Education England Technology Enhanced Learning Programme Bulletin - October 2014

From: TEL (HEALTH EDUCATION ENGLAND) [mailto:HEE.TEL AT nhs.net]
Sent: 22 October 2014 14:37
Subject: HEE TEL Programme Bulletin - October 2014

HEE TEL Programme Bulletin
October 2014
Welcome to the first edition of the TEL programme bulletin.
This is published monthly to provide an overview of progress with the programme projects, a snapshot of regional TEL news, as well as any current issues or hot topics.
If you have any feedback, want to add something to this bulletin or would prefer not to receive it, email hee.tel AT nhs.net 
In this issue…

-       User needs research
-       TEL Hack Day 2015
-       Programme Review
-       TEL @ conferences this month
-       Regional news and views…



User needs research
Following the completion of a desk study in May to effectively scope out existing TEL platforms and resources, additional research is currently being carried out to provide further evidence that there is a real need for a fully integrated TEL hub.

A questionnaire was sent out across the programme networks on 17 October and can be accessed at: https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/JCC9D2C

The survey will close on 3 November 2014. Please tweet about it too #HEETEL

All results will be triangulated with the desk study and other existing data from previous meetings and events and the results will inform the final Government Digital Services (GDS) business case.

#HEETEL


TEL Hack Day 2015, 6 – 8 March
A TEL specific hack day is planned in 2015, aimed at developing ideas and IT solutions to support healthcare students, staff and educators.

This weekend event is planned to take place from 6 to 8 March 2015 in Leeds. More details to follow shortly.

#HEtelHack


TEL Programme Review
A review was undertaken of the TEL Programme during August 2014 and the TEL Steering Group has now agreed the projects that are being progressed in order to deliver the Programme aims. Clearly the main deliverable of the TEL Programme is the TEL hub but there are 10 additional projects that the team is committed to building on. Each of the objectives, outputs, outcomes and benefits were discussed at an all groups’ meeting on 21 October and more detail will be shared over the coming weeks.

1. Digital literacy
2. Horizon scanning
3. Expert groups
4. Commissioning guidelines
5. Barriers and solutions to IT in the NHS

6. TEL in curricula and training pathways
7. Effective stakeholder involvement
8. Communities of Practice
9. User needs research
10.Integration with other HEE hubs

TEL @ conferences and events this month 
November will be busy month for the TEL team with presentations, workshops and stands planned at key upcoming events:
Updating on elderly medicine for FY and CMT doctors Geriatrics for Juniors (G4J) conference
8 November, Birmingham
Improving how humans and systems work together in healthcare
Annual Association for Simulated Practice in Healthcare (ASPiH) annual conference 2014
11 to 13 November, Nottingham


Education and Training Forum
Health Education Yorkshire and the Humber
26 November, Leeds


NHS-HE Connectivity Forum
Quarterly meeting
26 November, London

Regional news and views…
There continues to be an exciting range of TEL projects and initiatives being implemented regionally and this section of the newsletter is designed to provide a snapshot.

e-Learning Boot Camp Experience
Developers and others who support the delivery of e-Learning in the North West are benefitting from a new capability and capacity programme – the e-Learning Boot Camp Experience. Managed by the North West e-Learning Support Service, this programme is providing access to introductory and advanced skills in e-authoring, project management and quality assurance.

Sharing simulation scenarios
The North West simulation network have created a bank of evidence-based simulation scenarios to be made available across the region, as well as rolling out a quality assurance methodology to accredit individuals in the development of simulation skills, local courses using simulation techniques and centre-wide simulation.

Regional Simulation Network launched
Health Education North East (HENE) launched their Simulation Network last month, as part of the new Faculty for Patient Safety, within HENE. The aim is to bring together everyone who is interested in clinical skills, human factors and enhanced learning and education opportunities that effective simulation, research and innovation can deliver.

My source: NHS-HE-FORUM AT JISCMAIL.AC.UK & HEE

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Wednesday, October 29, 2014

3rd European Conference on Design 4 Health July 2015 UK

Design4Health2015 will be held at Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK from
Monday 13th to Thursday 16th July 2015.

Deadline for abstracts - Mon 5 Jan 2015

Design 4 Health 2015 provides an opportunity to reflect on how the disciplines of design and health might develop new ways of thinking and working, and how we might impact positively and sustainably on the social, economic and cultural factors within our communities and beyond.  We invite papers from researchers and practitioners across the areas of design and health in order to develop new dialogues and offer different perspectives.

The Call for Papers with full details of the conference themes is attached but they are summarised briefly here:

Design4Health2015: Synergies of Practice

key themes
Methodologies
Design encompasses a wide range of methodologies of practice and of research. Papers exploring the synergies of design and health methods are encouraged.

Making
Design has strengths around envisaging both problems and solutions to help all stakeholders explore the world of health in new and exciting ways. Papers exploring innovative methods and case studies are encouraged.

Measurement
The disciplines of design and health have different ways of both doing and defining ‘measurement’. Papers exploring the differences and opportunities around this area are encouraged.

areas of interest

  • Participatory approaches to design and research
  • Transdisciplinary working
  • Opportunities and barriers to innovation
  • Current and future landscapes in design4health
submission formats
This year, we are introducing some new elements to the conference and invite submissions in the following forms:
  • Abstract submissions: abstracts that address the conference themes, followed by short full papers before the conference
  • Poster proposals:  visually engaging poster describing research that address the conference themes
  • Exhibition proposals: creative responses to healthcare issues from across the art and design disciplines.
conference deadlines
Online submission opens: Mon 3 Nov 2014
Paper abstract deadline: Mon 5 Jan 2015 23:59 (GMT)
Submissions accepted: w/c 26 Jan 2015
Poster & exhibition proposal deadline: Fri 20 Feb 2015 23:59 (GMT)
Full paper deadline: Sun 8 Mar 23:59 (GMT)
Delegate registration opens: Mon 13 April 2015
Delegate registration closes: Mon 22 June 2015
Conference opens: Mon 13 July 2015


Online submission opens on 3 November 2014 at:
https://conference.shu.ac.uk/index.php/events/D4H2015

For announcements and news about D4H2013 [proceedings], please sign up to our email list at www.jiscmail.ac.uk/DESIGN4HEALTH or visit www.design4health.org.uk

Please circulate. Apologies for cross posting.

Kind regards
Kirsty Christer
Conference Organiser

My source:
CARING TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH ANNOUNCEMENT LIST

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Tuesday, October 28, 2014

Patient-Practitioner disconnect c/o Healthcare Innovation by Design

https://www.linkedin.com/groups?home=&gid=2579818&trk=anet_ug_hmA post on a LinkedIn group I follow Healthcare Innovation by Design roused my interest -

What's the Source of the Patient-Practitioner Disconnect? 


Invariably on the web one item relates to another and so with this:

Doctors Tell All—and It’s Bad (The Atlantic)
A crop of books by disillusioned physicians reveals a corrosive doctor-patient relationship at the heart of our health-care crisis.

Just the above mention of corrosive suggests a great deal about the pressures on relationships in health and social care. Is there a mechanistic failure to follow? It sounds like metal fatigue, if not in the actual relationships then the financial systems that underpin them?

Stephanie Frederick's post also invited the views of other healthcare professions, recognising this is not limited to medics. My own experience would identify the disconnect as resulting from a preoccupation with assessment.

As community mental health nurses this is what we do. Risk assessment is the critical focus. Collectively we assess, problem solve, evaluate and draw upon the resources of the community team and many other agencies then discharge the patient back to the GP general practitioner. There is little or, no time for therapeutic intervention.

You could say empathy and rapport have been reduced to gestures. This would be fine if it's technology we are gesticulating to: but it isn't.

It's a unique individual, a person trying to manage a new or recurrent problem. With them may be family members also struggling to make sense of a disruptive situation that may also be life-changing. If they have no family what then?

It isn't that I'm missing the custard creams with the coffee, it's the frustration of reading about the need for new models of care. Of course, many of these calls are for new financial, commissioning and organisational models; but other models are essential to negotiate the shift to self-care. And yes, I would advocate for Hodges' model as a candidate here.

Who is going to do this? 
Do what? 

Well, restore person-centered care to what it should be: more than a policy gesture.

We need to finally address the health services - health promotion AND the educational issue contained in each.

That's one source of disconnect... or ok several...

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Saturday, October 25, 2014

EAST-WEST: meetings of minds, bodies and souls

south
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
? WEST ------------------------------------------- EAST ?
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
north
"The Philosopher" by Ludwig Deutsch (1905) from the collection of Shafik Gabr.



Image source and title link:
NY Times Robin Pogrebin November 29, 2012
Seeing Orientalist Art as an Aid to East-West Dialogue
http://artsbeat.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/11/29/seeing-orientalist-art-as-an-aid-to-east-west-dialogue/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0

My source:
Financial Times 23 November 2013, p.6

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Saturday, October 18, 2014

Call for Articles: “Social Representations, ICTs and Community Empowerment”

Call for Articles for a Special Section of Semiotica, the Journal of the International Association for Semiotic Studies on the theme of “Social Representations, ICTs and Community Empowerment”.

This special section will provide an overview of the use of Social Representations Theory (SRT) (Moscovici, 1961), for empowering local communities, with a specific focus on the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), such as the Internet, desktop and mobile devices, radios, etc.

Interested researchers are invited to submit an abstract proposal (word file) of about 500 words via e-mail.

Abstracts should be accompanied by the following information about each of the authors:

  • Name
  • Position
  • Affiliation
  • Contact Information
The deadline for abstracts submission is November 21st, 2014.

Inquiries and submissions can be forwarded electronically to:

Dr. Sara Vannini
Università della Svizzera italiana, (USI Lugano, Switzerland)
sara.vannini AT usi.ch

More information can be found here:
http://www.newmine.org/call-for-articles-social-representations-icts-and-community-empowerment

Thank you so much for your help!

Sara
Sara Vannini, PhD
Visiting Researcher - TASCHA
Executive Director - NewMinE Lab
PostDoctoral Researcher - BeCHANGE Research Group
sara.vannini.usi AT gmail.com
website: http://www.saravannini.com


My source: ciresearchers AT vancouvercommunity.net

Additional link [pj]: Wikipedia - Social representation

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Thursday, October 16, 2014

Blog Action Day - Inequality (and Inequity)

When time permits I will try to identify some of the dimensions of inequality against Hodges' model. In the meantime:

In addition to supporting the above as initiatives are underway to introduce the internet and smart telephony to the millions who are e-unequal, it may be worth reflecting upon the e's.

Oxfam - Even it Up: Time to end extreme inequality
Need, Equity and Equality - Health Economics, University of York

Credit Suisse Global Wealth Report 

Fortune.com: Bill Gates' solution to income inequality

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