Hodges' Model: Welcome to the QUAD: Book review: iv "Leave No One Behind" #LNOB

- learn about the conceptual framework Hodges' model. A tool that can help integrate HEALTH and SOCIAL CARE, INFORMATICS and EDUCATION. The model is situated, facilitates person-centredness, integrated - holistic care and reflective practice. A new site using Drupal is an ongoing aim - the creation of a reflective workbench. Email: h2cmng @ yahoo.co.uk Welcome

Friday, February 05, 2021

Book review: iv "Leave No One Behind" #LNOB

Chapter 6 on Leapfrogging is significant, addressing not just education but access to a 21st Century education. I'm also conscious that as per the reviews I tend to leapfrog all over the (cognitive) space. There's quite a choice of words in the opening sentence: in education having a crucial role in dealing with the burning problems the world faces. Winthrop and Ziegler provide music for my ears as "we need to embrace new mental models for rapidly accelerating .. leapfrogging - education progress (p.109). More than half of all school-age children (884 million) will not be on track to achieve secondary-level skills, that include critical thinking and problem solving (pp.109-110). A process often deployed in providing education is explained:

The context remains global. The USA and the contrast between rich and poor students at 40 points (PISA) is the largest in the world. Five countries could, by 2030, account for half of all children who do not complete primary schooling. As before, notes and links flow thick and fast:  


We know the robots are advancing but there is hope in education, with 69 million new teachers being needed to achieve SDG 4. Healthcare, medicine and nursing especially provides its own workforce opportunities. COVID is showing us that you can have rapid provision of 'Nightingale Hospitals' but without staff ...? In intensive care, person-centred, or at least very-focused [Sciences-Physical] care, relies on 1:1 nurse patient ratio or better; without this staff multitasking, you are burning a candle at both ends. In education many nations, as we read, need extra teachers to reduce class sizes. The leapfrog is needed due to a hundred-year gap in 21st century education (p.113). Again, again: the need for new ways to advance education, "characterised by new mental models..." (p.114) and "... without harnessing new models we will never succeed." 

Reading, I scream* "Hey, the model's over here!" as there is more:

"Fourth, [ :-) ] and perhaps most important, while many actors in the global education community might argue that the idea of embracing new models so all young people can get a twenty-first century education is simply too difficult or unrealistic, there is s strong demand from national governments to do just that." p.115.

I realise there are many models implied here, but Hodges' model can I am sure play a role.

Late in the chapter there is a definition of leapfrogging, which put this on a more serious footing (really). I often wonder if those who speak about holistic, person-centred, integrated care or whatever that they can recognise x,y,z at the end of the day. Here there are directions on recognition of leapfrogging and its elements.

Essentially, leapfrogging has the above steps running in parallel.

HUMANISTIC----------------------------------------------- MECHANISTIC
cognitive ACCESS
student-centred, QUALITY
individualised learning
scaling up [conceptual framework!]
virtual leapfrog lab
physical ACCESS
places, QUALITY
technology and data

the ELEPHANT in the domain:

people & 'places' diverse
social access - gender equality

policy design
funding, RELEVANCE
ACCESS governance/assurance
'reading' the data - evaluation
political 'mind-set' shift

There are examples, describing the situation in several countries. 

Another scream rings forth*, as I read that most efforts "have focused on identifying and highlighting innovations," and for the authors, "putting forward a conceptual framework that identifies which innovations have the potential to leapfrog."p.124. 

I'm skipping chapter 7 not because of some problem, it is another pearl and concerning 'universal health coverage' it ties to a paper my co-author and I have just re-submitted. The challenge is time, posts i-iii to date and two further books, plus two other well advanced drafts.

Following community informatics for many years and other sources, a pivotal aspect of gender equality is finance: enter chapter 8 - No women excluded from financial services. Social and economic history, community mental health work in the UK demonstrates the need to target certain welfare (e.g. child) benefits - to women to ensure it is spent as intended. Also apparent are the changes c/o technology. This book does refer to the leapfrog phenomenon in telephony. Many African nations moving to mobile communications skipping a whole generation (or two ...) of telecom infrastructure. Similarly though there is the demise of cash. If people do not have a bank account they miss out and so does the national respective, whether a citizen, or not (recognised). 

For students, the lay reader ... again I can recommend the copious sources:


If the elephant in the SCIENCES - Physical - empirical knowledge domain is geography, in the POLITICAL domain since at least Stiglitz's 'Roaring 90s' it is not just poverty, but the quantitative comparisons that have been made for several decades between the ultrapoor and the ultrawealthy. I remember reading of how certain 'wealth managers' have moved further 'upmarket'. Along the lines of - £10 million? Don't bother us! The repercussions of the 2008 financial crisis are still unresolved, the damage ongoing on so many measures. A crisis not just exacerbated by COVID, but lacerated across all communities and nations; but where is ground zero in terms of the real impact (sorry!)? This chapter considers all the SDGs and gender-equitable financial inclusion (Table 8-1, p.151). There are studies, results, rationale for why having an account matters and a global perspective. As mentioned COVID has helped my regards the individual <-> group axis. Chapter 8 explains intranational and intra-community variations in terms of the gender gap in having an account with a financial institution or mobile service (p.158).

Chapter 9 gave me 'income floors' and the effectiveness of tax-funded transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa. The insights into research explained here by Lustig, Jellema and Pabon that 'D'evelopment is another future employment avenue with something of a 'humanistic moat' to protect it from algorithmic incursions. Although the book via the Brookings Institute points to the opportunities that AI can provide in this field. Again resources abound:



Learning of  'income floors' I wonder about the (disciplinary) extent of these floors, especially as Lustig et al. bring in 'perfectly-targeted' with 'spending-neutral', 'poverty gap' and 'poverty line'. Tables and graphs support explanation of  methodology, with the results from specific countries. Contrast and comparison is a great way to learn, no less here with poverty, tax burden and alternative policy strategies (p.180). This might sound dry, but the book engages, provokes thought, if anything it makes you thirsty for more. 'Forthcoming' work is sign-posted, so this work, the figures, stats are very much dynamic and alive as befits Agenda2030. It has to be given identification of 'fiscal impoverishment' and VAT leaks.

PART III Places: Following informatics since  the 80s I have, from the  periphery, followed the development and deployment of geographic information systems. The opening of Chapter 10 on spatial targeting of poverty hotspots, returned to the concrete reality of geography with my note of children -  'life chances' and the 'health career' (p.209). There is reliance on the history (back to Roman times) and evidence of socio-economic development, the change from rural to urbanization. Unfortunately, if you are a lover of 'dark skies' a measure used is nightlights (p.213) with agriculture as a driver. Limitations in terms of conclusions is stated, data lacking for a subnational picture. The authors investigate the characteristics of poverty hotspots and why some places develop and others do not. Policy issues leads to discussion of human capital, the critical contribution of education and health. I've followed HIFA.org for many years - health information for all. The aim here is to ensure that geography does not dictate the destiny of large numbers of people in developing nations.

[There is a further astrophysical point when satellite imaging can determine the viability of crops, the type of shelters/housing in areas, picking out tin roofs for example. Contrast this with the increased population in low and high Earth orbit and need to 'tidy-up'.]

Chapter 11 provided another lesson the INDIVIDUAL-GROUP axis. The role of cities within the state and ongoing trauma experienced within fragile states, with their vulnerable populations. The difference between social and personal justice. I contrasted 'fragility' with 'frailty' in healthcare. The quality does not wane in the final chapters and there is a logical progression here as we'll see. 

Table 11.1 is a gift for Hodges' model: Drivers of Fragility.

"This overview and analysis of the numerous indicators of fragility brings nuance to the discussion on why defining fragility has been thus far inconclusive and inadequate in inspiring solutions to fragility in all contexts." (p.242).
'All contexts' - I wonder?

There are quite a few indices in the book; State Fragility Index here and the role of Foreign Direct Investment. There are phrases, no doubt common-place in the development lexicon, but they beg deeper understanding - large-scale conflict and low-level violence (empathy and solutions!). Interdisciplinary research is needed to understand the causal linkages at various levels. Table 11.2 'Current Approaches to Fragility', I would think is a great resource for students. 'Military-urbanism' is another characteristic of fragile states. If you think of hearing about global unrest in the world, where is it most likely located? There are several pages (with a table) explaining Matland's conflict-ambiguity model (p.269). The chapter also points to formal international declarations and agendas around which the global response can be coordinated and progress assessed. I'm really encouraged about the 'big picture' credentials of Hodges' model as although they may often be unfortunately concurrent, targeting of poverty hotspots has a companion in targeting fragile states.

All the contributors achieve quite a feat. Although the SDGs are on the book's cover, they are not the cacophony they could be. The history from the Millennium Development Goals does emerge, and from this how the SDGs stand out, in this instance SDG 11 (cities). I've maps of Calgary from 1979 and 1989, an education comparing. We nurses are motivated by being able (if enabled) to make a difference. I do envy those with career pathways to find / tread. What a difference city planners must make too. An impact that is also transdisciplinary. There is still some uncertainty, a need for agreement on the definition of 'urban'. I've approached a community informatics list for any thoughts.

Logical progression and organisation of the book is obvious, as chapter 12 deals with the importance of city leadership. References to events on 'Smart Cities' have been legion for many years, so hopefully technical solutions will not distract for the hybrid leadership skills that are now needed. The need for a ''holistic' picture of urban environments (p.284) is made, perhaps a piece  of the jig-saw, I saw comparing those maps 1979-1989. 

In so many cities there are vulnerable populations. The issue of financial and bank account access and having an address has already been made. Once again, here Pipa and Conroy raise the problem of lack of data. A solution is needed to leapfrog the usual  'household surveys' to provide data and information informing VNR Vulnerable Nation Reviews (p.285) presented to the UN. Allied with transdisciplinary is 'multisolving' (p.289) and perhaps 'humanics' also posted recently? Summing up "cities frame the global frontier in the fight for fairness" (p.292). Following the (real) news and media you inevitably read of cities on the coast and vulnerable to rising oceans. Some nations of seeking to move cities / capitals and build capitals anew. Clearly a space to watch in so any ways.

Finally, chapter 13 has a section all its own: 'On Politics' and as per post #1 underscored my need to read critically on feminism and intersectionality. The focus is feminist leadership. This is excellent material by Paul O'Brien, that begins with a quote:

 It's the combination of feminist leadership and typology of power that is liberating and potentially community affirming that I enjoyed. This is educational as it opens up the level of sophistication, depth of involvement and expertise of NGOs and charities, in this case Oxfam (with acknowledgement of recent history and the need for governance and accountability). So, how are your 'zero sum realities'? Just as the book addresses the SDGs continuously, but in an understated manner, there's a very important point made in the fact that the purpose of the SDGs is not redistributing power, but improving "well-being" or human "development" (p.304). The discussion on power, reminded me of the term 'non-rivalrous' from another (lengthy) book review:


Perhaps I missed it, but tax (p.312) does not appear in the otherwise comprehensive index. The preceding listing of the book's contributors is helpful. The closing critique of what LNOB represents is a key take-away, one of several, but significant as the calendar moves closer to 2030.

Many thanks to the publisher for my copy and to all involved in this book The world needs ER now. Agenda 2030 must not be derailed. This book is Essential Reading ... especially to help me achieve a holistic overview of development, the scope and specifics of the SDGs. (paper pending)

HUMANISTIC----------------------------------------------- MECHANISTIC

Homi Kharas, John W. McArthur and Izumi Ohno, (Eds.) 2020. Leave No One Behind: Time for Specifics on the Sustainable Development Goals, Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. 

*(mentally of course)