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Saturday, December 02, 2017

Data, Information, Knowledge defined c/o McGonigle & Mastrian

Graves and Corcoran (1989) drew from Blum (1986) to define the three concepts as follows: (1) data are discrete entities described objectively without interpretation; (2) information is data that are interpreted, organised, or structured; and (3) knowledge is information that is synthesized so that relationships are identified and formalized. Drawing on this work, Nelson (1982, 2002) defined wisdom as the appropriate application of knowledge to the management and solution of human problems.  
Data, which are processed to create information and then knowledge, may be obtained from individuals, familes, communities, and populations and the environment in which they exist. Data, information, knowledge, and wisdom are of concern to nurses in all areas of practice. For example, data derived from direct care of an individual may then be compiled across persons and aggregated for decision making by nurses, nurse administrators, or other health professionals. Further aggregation may address communities and populations. Nurse educators may create case studies using these data, and nurse researchers may access aggregated data for systematic study. pp.97-98.

McGonigle, D., Mastrian, K.G. (2012) Nursing Informatics and the Foundation of Knowledge, Second Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning, Burlington, MA.

Fourth edition: http://www.jblearning.com/catalog/9781284121247/

See also:
Jones, P. (1996) Humans, Information, and Science, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 24(3),591-598.