- learn about the conceptual framework Hodges' model. A tool that can help integrate HEALTH and SOCIAL CARE, INFORMATICS and EDUCATION. The model is situated, facilitates person-centredness, integrated - holistic care and reflective practice. A new site using Drupal is an ongoing aim - the creation of a reflective workbench. Email: h2cmng @ yahoo.co.uk Welcome

Friday, February 08, 2019

c/o The King's Fund: Making sense of integrated care systems, integrated care partnerships and accountable care organisations in the NHS in England

When I see a 'model' I ask myself; what does this mean in itself? What is its purpose? I also (invariably) ask how does it relate to, or how might it support the theory and application that might underpin h2cm?

In February 2018 The King's Fund posted this item on integrated care systems. It wasn't just the 2x2 figure that caught my eye, but the axes and the additional amber tab (figure 1). Pondering for a time I have transposed this to Hodges' model below figure 1. Beneath that, I've provided an explanation for the altered schematic; recognising that as with h2cm such models are idealised representations.

c/o The King's Fund


individual
|
INTERPERSONAL : SCIENCES
humanistic ----------------------------------------------- mechanistic
SOCIOLOGY : POLITICAL
|
group
Individual care management

Care for patients presenting with illness or for those at high risk of requiring care services

Population Health (systems)

Improving health outcomes across whole populations including the distribution of health outcomes

[Improving population health outcomes requires multiple interventions across systems]



'Making every contact count'

Active health promotion when individuals come into contact with health and care services


Integrated care models

Co-ordination of care services for defined groups of people (eg. older people and those with complex needs)



INTRA- INTERPERSONAL:
Individual care management has been changed from care services and individuals to this domain, which conceptually preserves the original placement. In h2cm as can be seen the interpersonal domain combines the individual and humanistic. In the 4Ps this domain also includes 'purpose'. Whenever possible it here (individual motivation) that self-care and self-efficacy and staying as well as possible relies on the patient's awareness and education about their condition and level of health literacy. There is recognition now that children need some awareness of mental health issues and the law needs to protect what images and content youngsters are exposed to on social media. So, ultimately 'how I manage myself' has a major bearing on the 'whole care management enterprise.' The focus on 'high risk' also denotes a need for an assessment and one that is part of the move to parity of esteem in respect of physical and mental health.

SCIENCES:
I have shifted Population Health (systems)from population to this (physical) individual domain, on the basis that our research, as in, quantitative and qualitative, needs to be synthesized and then ultimately generalised - across populations. While complex systems cannot be taken apart it is from the sciences (including social sciences) that evidence-based practice flows. There should be a feedback loop here, research that also takes into account the multiple interventions across systems (the amber tab in figure 1) and the outcomes achieved.

POLITICAL:
The King's Fund's figure 1 stands as it is of course, but I have 'moved' Integrated care models most radically. If there is no organisation, rules, order, policy, procedures ... then things will NOT happen (as they should). Agreement is also needed on definitions for reasons of standards, measures and accountability. Such matters are political (even if ignored - kicked in the long-grass). For services that are evidence-based (as just mentioned in SCIENCES) we need when possible for health and social care policies to also be evidence-based (for reasons of efficiency, equity, effectiveness and equality). While we cannot 'break' complex systems we can break models; 'health care systems' need to break ("be broken whilst still in flight") in order to be transformed for the 21st century.

SOCIOLOGY:
Making every contact count I have placed in the h2cm's Sociology domain. To me this initiative remains with care services, but I have switched this from individual to group-population within h2cm. Health care education places constant emphasis (research, CPD, mandatory training) upon interpersonal - communication skills and this is where clinical and social care interactions and interactions ultimately count. It is here that trust, the 6Cs, unconditional positive regard ... are 'counted' in qualitative terms. If the psychological represents the theory of psych-social intervention, it is in the social outcomes and benefits were the practice is (truly) delivered. It is also here that partnerships are forged and social capital found.

In social care as an example, the integrated care model should politically permit - allow for a sufficiently skilled and remunerated work-force (socially valued?) with sufficient time to ensure that every contact really does count.

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Forty years in the NHS suggests that when ever 'integrated care' is being written and even spoken about, then the context should be indicated at the same time; so at least - integrated care1-5 as above?

'integrated' as in -
  • philosophy (ethics, morality, values)
  • spiritual (values) (and part-whole of 1-5)
  • political - policy, government funding
  • economically - commissioning (models of care, sustainability)
  • management
  • care delivery
  • team organisation
  • community involvement
  • patient involvement
  • health literacy, health promoting
...?

Accessibility: apologies that there is no equivalent text to figure 1.

My source: https://twitter.com/TheKingsFund/status/1093556280248147969