- learn about the conceptual framework Hodges' model. A tool that can help integrate HEALTH and SOCIAL CARE, INFORMATICS and EDUCATION. The model is situated, facilitates person-centredness, integrated - holistic care and reflective practice. A new site using Drupal is an ongoing aim - the creation of a reflective workbench. Email: h2cmng @ yahoo.co.uk Welcome

Thursday, December 05, 2019

Review: i Kinchin's Visualising Powerful Knowledge to Develop the Expert Student

If there are sources to help understand Hodges' model and even contribute and provide evidence for a 'theory' then this book is one to add to the shelf.

Consequently this is the first of several posts (and other book reviews?):

Kinchin's Visualising Powerful Knowledge to Develop the Expert Student and related books
As mentioned Kinchin's book was brought to my attention through the Threshold Concepts forum. More on this to follow. Kinchin begins by noting how academics who teach at universities are there because they are subject experts. This is not just their knowing a lot, but the way this knowledge is organised (structured) and understood. This facilitates their engagement in the field to help extend knowledge further and the discipline they teach. Kinchin cites Goldsmith et al. (1991):
"To be knowledgeable in some area is to understand the interrelationships among the important concepts in that domain." p.4.
There is an immediate opportunity here, to note that Hodges' model in providing four domains is encouraging and facilitating the identification, association, understanding (meanings) across the model's domains that for novices simultaneously increases their vocabulary.

Kinchin's book seeks to address what is often a marked gap, between academics as subject matter experts and their ability to teach or present the content of 'what they know'. While teachers (and nurse mentors) are preoccupied with a student's competence, this book also considers the competence of teachers to teach. Kinchin reports how a great deal of teaching appears designed to keep students as 'perpetual novices'. I had an image here of Benner's theory pushing from one side; while teaching custom & practice (Powerpoint, linear, chains - of theory) pushes from the other. Why are students being taught, why are they learning? Reference to tell-memorise-test-forget in order to pass exams, seems the end-game, the outcome that student are now (potentially) paying for.

At this point in writing the review, I come across an omission. There is no index, but what appears a comprehensive list of references is provided. I found what I was looking for quickly enough - reference to 'bulimic learning' on p.7. Students gorge on information only to regurgitate it for exam purposes. This means it is undigested, not learned and integrated into the student's existing knowledge base and other concurrent learning. While science is applied in terms of evidence through research, teachers often seem reluctant to apply the very same principles.
"One of the problems in moving from 'traditional' teaching models towards 'effective' models is perhaps the lack of accessible tools with which to support the change from the non-learning of inert knowledge to the meaningful learning of powerful knowledge." p.7
Teachers and teaching provoke many adages, especially in health education; the 'differences' between those who practice, those who teach and those dedicated to research who eschew teaching preferring research. As the references suggest, Kinchin cites the literature, in this case the 'politics of reluctance'. Ideally all should apply, teaching, teachers, research and researchers married and allied together. There is a tendency (as ever) to stereotype and dichotomise. Some teach because they are lousy researchers; when it should be the case that teachers teach the way they research (p.10).

Chapter 1 is "The Framework - Linking Key Ideas" central is the approach and resource provided by Novak and Symlington in 1982 using the concept map. With a small library of papers and books, Novak is in there, Tony Buzan's mind-mapping approach - which is different and other sources. From the start, examples of a concept map framework are provided pp. 3,4,6 ... While very critical of 'traditional' teaching, Kinchin is sympathetic to the reality many teachers face and empathetic of teaching as the poor cousin. There are teachers aspiring to be 'active' teachers and effect change.

to be continued...

Novak, J.D. and Symington, D.J. (1982) Concept mapping for curriculum development. Victoria Institute for Educational Research Bulletin, 48: 3–11.

Kinchin, I., (2016) Visualising powerful knowledge to develop the expert student. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

See also:

Intro post

Review Two

Three

Four

Five

Six

Thanks to Brill for my review copy.